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Term used to signify a first class ocean vessel.
Proceeding where a carrier seeks authorization to stop service over all or part of its
route/line or to give up ownership/control of cargo or vessel must be approved by the ICC
in the case of motor or rail proceedings; 2) shipper or consignee relinquishes damaged
freight, carrier or refuses to accept delivery; 3) in marine insurance giving up title to
partly destroyed property to the insurers; 4) the act of relinquishing title to damaged or
lost property in order to claim a total loss.
Absolute Liability - Condition in which carrier is responsible for all liability
and is not protected by the normal exemptions found in bill of lading or common law
Abstract - Abridgement of evidence omitting non-essential items; used especially
in regulatory proceedings
Acceptance - 1) Acknowledged receipt by consignee of a shipment terminating the
common carrier contract; 2) a promise to pay, usually evidenced by inscribing across the
face of the bill "accepted", followed by the date, the place payable, and the
Accessorial Charges - Charges for supplementary services and privileges provided
in connection with line-haul transportation of goods. These charges are not included in
the freight charge and usually take the form of a flat fee. Some examples are:
pickup-delivery, in-transit privileges, demurrage, switching, loading/unloading, weighing,
storage, inspection, grading, repackaging, billing, and fabrication.
Actual Gross Weight - The sum of the container weight, tractor pulling it and
the payload contained in it.
Actual Payload - Actual weight of commodity being transported (actual gross
weight minus tare weight).
Ad Hoc - Latin phrase meaning "for this"; in business used to indicate
a single end or purpose, a onetime application e.g., an ad hoc investigating committee.
Ad Valorem Latin phrase meaning "according to value"; freight
rates set at a certain fixed percentage of the value of articles, e.g., the wholesale
price of the articles are known as ad valorem rates.
Advanced Charge Freight or charge on a shipment that is advanced by one
transportation company or another, or to the shipper, to be collected from the consignee.
Advice of Shipment Notice to local or foreign buyer that shipment has
occurred with details of packing, routing, etc.; a copy of invoice is usually enclosed and
sometimes a copy of the bill of lading.
Written statement which must be witnessed and sworn to before a
notary public or other officer who has authority to administer oaths or affirmations.
Afloat Commodities underway in water transit, either actually aboard
vessels at sea or in port but yet unloaded.
Agent 1) A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of
another; 2) a broker.
Aggregated Shipments Several shipments from different shippers to a
single consignee, consolidated and treated as a single consignment.
All-Risk Insurance Name given to a policy which covers against loss
caused by all perils except those which are specifically excluded in the terms of the
policy. Ordinarily policies name the peril or perils specifically covered in the policy.
All-Commodity Rate Usually a carload/truckload rate applicable to
multiple shipments which move at one time in one vehicle from the consignor to one
consignee; also as "freight-all-kinds" or FAK rates. An all-commodity rate is
established based on actual transportation cost rather than "Value of service".
Allowance Deduction from the weight or value of goods, allowed if a
carrier fails to provide necessary equipment and that equipment is furnished by the
Alongside Point of delivery beside a vessel; statement designating where
the title to goods passes from party to another.
Alternate Routing Routing that is less desirable than the normal but
results in identical terms.
American Society of Traffic & Transportation (AT&T) Examining and
certifying organization which aims for professionalism in the traffic and transportation
American Bureau of Shipping Organization for classification of vessels,
control of construction specifications and examination of seaworthiness.
American Trucking Association (ATA) National federation of the U.S.
trucking industry comprised of 51 state trucking associations (including D.C.) and
including independent conferences, each representing a special class/type of trucking
American Warehouse-Mens Association (AWA)
Voluntary organization of
warehouse-men established to assure high standards in the industry.
American Waterway Operators A domestic water-carrier industry association
representing barge operation on the inland waterways.
Arbitrar 1) Charge in addition to regular freight charge to compensate
for unusual local conditions; 2) Fixed amount accepted by a carrier when dividing joint
Arrival Notice Notice the carrier sends to the consignee when a shipment
As Customary In a contract, this refers to the usual manner of performing
a service without a time period specified.
As/Is Term indicating that goods offered are without warranty/guarantee,
purchase has no recourse on vendor for quality of the merchandise.
Association of American Railroads A railroad industry association that
represents the U.S. railroads.
Athwartship A direction across the beam of a vessel.
Audit Trail 1) Path generated by a fully processed business transaction
includes original entry, transaction listing, file posting and report; 2) Management
controls that document acceptance, handling and movement of materials through a warehouse;
3) Verifying summary account balances by analysis/inspection of underlying source
documents and transaction records.
Operating rights granted by a motor carrier by the Interstate
Authorized Carrier Person/company authorized by the Interstate Commerce
Commission to engage in the transportation of property as a common or contract carrier.
Axle Ratings Rear axles on a truck generally carry three ratings;
carrying capacity rates at ground (gaw rating); total weight the axle is capable of
carrying/pulling in service, gross combined weight (gcw rating); the maximum horsepower
limit the axle is capable of carrying in normal service (engine size rating).
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1) Return transportation movement, usually at less revenue than
the original move (headhaul); 2) movement in the direction of lighter traffic flow when
traffic is generally heavier in the opposite direction; 3) to move a shipment back over
part of a route already traveled.
Bank Draft Bill of exchange drawn by one bank to another.
Barge The cargo-carrying vehicle used primarily by inland water carriers.
The basic barges have open tops, but there are covered barges for both dry and liquid
Container of cylindrical shape made of wood, aluminum or steel
which is longer than it is wide and has ends with equal diameters.
Barter To exchange goods or services without the use of money.
Basing Point Geographic point to which transportation rates are set so
that rates to adjacent points can be constructed by adding to/deducting from the basing
Baud Rate Number of bits per second a computer is capable of
sending/receiving, varies from 300 (teletypewriter) to 9600.
Bay Area in a warehouse outlined by markings on columns or posts or floor
to show specific boundaries; e.g., a 20-foot square.
Beam Greatest width of a ships structure.
Benefit-Cost Ratio An analytical tool used in public planning; a ratio of
total measurable benefits divided by the initial capital cost.
Bill of Lading (B/L) Principal transportation document by which a carrier
acknowledges receipt of freight, describes the freight and sets forth a contract of
carriage. Terms and conditions, responsibilities and liabilities vary with manner and
place of use. Bills of lading may be negotiable or non-negotiable. Contents of the bill of
lading were outlined originally in 1917. Every bill of lading must contain at least the
following: 1) date of issue, 2) name of cosigner, 3) place of original consignment, 4)
place of delivery, 5) statement of whether goods are to be delivered to a specific person,
6) description of goods/packages containing them, 7) signature of carrier. There are many
kinds of bills of lading: Uniform Straight Bill of Lading, Short Form Uniform Straight
Bill of Lading, Order-Notify Bill of Lading, Ocean-Marine Bill of Lading, Air Bill of
Lading, Express Bill of Lading, etc.
Blanket Rate A rate that does not increase according to the distance the
commodity is shipped.
Bogie 1) An assembly of two or more axles; 2) removable set of rear axles
and wheels used to support a van container.
Bolster A device so fitted on a chassis or railcar so as to hold and
secure the container.
Bona Fide Latin phrase meaning "in good faith," also used to
mean real or true.
Bond 1) Obligation made binding by payment of a fee, which is lost if the
contract is violated; 2) a binding agreement.
Bonded Warehouse Warehouse approved by the Treasury Department and under
bond/guarantee for observance of revenue laws; used for storing goods until duty or goods
are released in some other proper manner.
Bottom Side-Rails Structural members located on the longitudinal sides of
the base of the container.
Box 1) Slang term for trailer or container for ocean carriers; 2) slang
term used for truck transmission.
An enclosed railcar typically 40 to 50 feet long; used for
packaged freight and some bulk commodities.
Securing a shipment inside a carriers vehicle to prevent
Branch Line Railroad line providing train service to one or more stations
beyond a junction with the main line or another branch in the line.
Breakbulk 1) To unload, sort and reload some/all of the contents of a
vehicle in transit; 2) to reduce a large shipment of a single commodity to many small
shipments that are then dispersed to various buyers.
Bridge Formula Formula used to determine maximum gross weight that can be
carried on any given arrangement of consecutive axles.
Broker 1) Agent who arranges interstate movement of goods by other
carrier; 2) arranger of except loads for owner-operators and/or carriers; 3) one who
arranges the buying/selling of goods for a commission; 4) person who leases owned
equipment to a carrier; 5) solicitor of insurance who places orders for coverage with
companies designated by the insured or with companies of his choosing.
Bulk Carrier Vessel engaged in carriage of bulk commodities like
petroleum, grain, or ore, which are not packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed.
Bulkhead Upright wall in trailer or rail car that separates and
stabilizes a load; 2) cargo restraining partition in a vehicle or vessel.
Bull Rings Cargo securing devices mounted in the floor of containers
which pr9ovide for the lashing and securing of cargo.
Business Statistics The physical movement of goods from supply points to
final sale to customers and the associated transfer and holding of such goods at various
intermediate storage points, accomplished in such a manner as to contribute to the
explicit goals of the organization.
Buyers Right to Route When a seller does not pay for freight charges, the
purchaser has the right to designate the route for shipment; seller is responsible for
following the buyers instructions. Complete routing is permitted for rail shipments,
but only for the first carrier in motor shipments.
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C & F (Cost and Freight) Term used in ocean transportation meaning
the price states includes cost of goods and transportation charges to point of
destination; insurance is normally not included.
CBD (Terms of Sale) Cash before delivery; seller assumes no risk and
extends no credit because he is paid before shipment.
CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) Basis for quotation by seller that
indicates seller will pay insurance and freight charges to destination only.
Capacity Plate Plate affixed to a forklift truck indicating maximum
weight, which can be raised/moved by that equipment.
Capstain Mechanical device for moving/raising heavy weights, used at
docks in mooring vessels at rail terminals to move dead engines.
Captains Protest Declaration by master of ship on arrival in port
to accidents/damage to ship/cargo during voyage, designed to relieve ship owner of
Cargo Freight transported in a vehicle.
Carload (C/L or CL) 1) Quantity of freight required to fill a rail car;
2) specified quantity necessary to qualify a shipment for a carload rate.
Carriage That part of transportation service that is represented by
actual movement of goods to a point of destination, after having been loaded but before
Carrier Individual, partnership or corporation engaged in the business of
transporting goods or passengers, in most cases for a fee.
Carriers Liability Liability begins when goods are delivered at the
proper place, and ends when the goods have been delivered to the consignee or when the
carriers duty has been discharged according to terms of the freight contract.
Cartage 1 Charges for pickup/delivery of goods; 2) Act of moving goods
(usually short distances).
Group of industrial companies that agree to regulate output,
divide markets and set prices at which to sell products; an illegal practice in the United
States since it violates antitrust laws.
Case Mark Information shown on the outside of shipping carton, including
destination and contents.
Cash in Advance (CIA) Method of paying for goods where buyer pays seller
before shipment of goods, employed when goods are built-to-order.
Caveat Emptor Latin term meaning "let the buyer beware." Common
law imposes on the buyer the duty of examining a purchase; there is no recourse against
seller because of the defects.
Cellular Vessel Ship constructed for transportation of containers stacked
on top of each other in vertical, guide shafts, no general freight is carried.
Certificate of Insurance Issued (usually on form E or Form H) by an
office of an insurance company to state agency or other party, stating the fact that the
party named has insurance coverage in amounts/types; not a binding agreement.
Certificate of Manufacture Documents with letters of credit when drafts
are paid/negotiated on presentation of a certificate stating that goods have been
completed and are being held for shipment.
Certificate of Origin Indicates country producing goods listed on it,
required by customs officials; used to secure "most favored Nation" treatment in
foreign markets and for correct assessment of import duties.
Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity The grant of operating
authority that is given to common carriers. A carrier must prove that a public need exists
and that the carrier is fit, willing and able to provide the needed service. The
certificate may specify the commodities to be hauled, the area to be served and the routes
to be used.
Certificate of Registry Document issued by maritime authorities
indicating legal restrictions of a ship.
Certificated Carrier a for-hire carrier that is subject to economic
regulation and that requires an operating certification to provide services.
A trailer-type device with wheels constructed to accommodate
containers enabling the load to be moved over-the-road.
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center; organization available
on a 24-hour basis to provide emergency response information to anyone involved in
hazardous chemical accidents.
Chock A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to
prevent it from rolling about or moving sideways.
Claim 1) Demand on transportation company for payment due to loss/damage
of freight that occurred during transit; 2) demand on transportation company for refund on
overcharge; 3) demand by individual/ corporation to recover for loss under policy of
Class Rate Rate for commodities grouped according to similar shipping
characteristics, applies to numbered/lettered groups/classes of articles contained in the
territorial rating column in classification schedules.
Clayton Act An antitrust act of Congress making price discrimination
unlawful; the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the enforcement agency.
1) Customhouse certificate that ship is free to leave, all
legal requirements having been met; 3) space or measurements above and beside
Cleat Strip of wood/metal used to add additional strength, prevent
warping, keep in position.
Coastal Carriers Water carriers that produce service along coasts serving
ports on the Atlantic or Pacific oceans or on the Gulf of Mexico.
Co-Load Two shipments from different terminals combined to ship as one
COD Terms of Sales Cash on delivery; buyer pays carrier the price of
goods before they are delivered; seller assumes risk of purchaser refusing to accept
Collapsible Container So fitted that the main parts are hinged or
removable for the purpose of reducing its effective volume for transporting in an empty
condition, thus making more efficient use of empty space.
Collect Shipment Shipment where collection of freight charges/advances is
made by delivering carrier from the consignee/receiver.
Commerce Buying, selling, trading of goods and services.
Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution "
Congress shall have
to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several
" that gives authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Commercial Invoice Itemized list issued by seller/exporter in foreign
trade showing quantity, quality, description of goods, price, terms of sales,
marks/numbers, weight, full name/address of purchaser and date.
Fee charges by brokers as compensation for their services in
purchasing or selling commodities/securities at the direction of the customer.
Committee of American Steamship Lines An industry association
representing subsidized U.S. flag steamship firms.
Commodity Rate A rate for a specific commodity and its
Common Carrier Any carrier engages in the interstate transportation of
persons/property on a regular schedule at published rate sand whose services are available
to the general public on a fore-hire basis; regulated by the Interstate Commerce
Common Carrier Duties Common carriers are required to serve, deliver,
charge reasonable rates, and not discriminate.
Common Cost A cost that cannot be directly assignable to particular
segments of the business but that is incurred for the business as a whole.
Concealed Damage When product in an apparently undamaged container is
damaged; freight claims difficult to settle in such cases because neither shipper nor
carrier wants responsibility.
Document signed by carrier and filed with the Interstate
Commission that verifies carrier participates in rates published in a tariff by a given
Conference 1) Independent/autonomous organization within the American
Trucking Association, Inc. (ATA) that represents a certain class/type of motor carrier; 2)
association of ship owners servicing the same trade route who operate under collective
conditions of carriage and tariff rates.
Consign 1) Deliver formally to another; 2) send goods to purchaser,
factor or agent to sell.
Person who receives goods shipped from one owner (consignor).
Person or firm that ships articles to customers (consignees).
Consolidation Practice of combining less-than-carload (LCL) or
less-than-truckload (ITL) shipments to make carload/truckload movements.
Container-Freight Station (CFS) Associated with consolidation depots
where parcels of cargo are grouped and loaded into containers.
Container Load A loading that does not utilize the full volumetric
capacity of a container nor the maximum payload by weight and will permit additional part
Container Pool An agreement between transport carriers and/or container
leasing companies that will permit additional part loads.
Container Ship Vessel with specially designed cellular structure for
transportation of containers.
Containerization 1) Practice/technique of using box-like device to store,
protect and handle a number of packages as a unit of transit; 2) shipping system based on
large cargo-carrying containers (usually 20 or 40 feet in length) that can be interchanged
between trucks, trains and ships without rehandling contents.
Contract Carrier Carrier engaged in interstate transportation of
persons/property by motor vehicle on a for-hire basis but under continuing contract with
one or a limited number of customers to meet specific needs of each customer, must receive
authorization in the form of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Cooperative Associations Groups of firms or individuals having common
interests; agricultural cooperative associations may haul up to 25% of their total
interstate tonnage in non-farm non-member goods in movements incidentals and necessary to
their primary business.
Coordinated Transportation Two or more carriers of different modes
transporting a shipment.
Cordage products of rope, twine and string industry.
Cost and Freight (C&F) Ocean transportation term meaning price stated
includes cost of goods and transportation charges to point of destination; insurance
normally is not included.
Cube Slang term for volume capacity of a van trailer.
Cube Out When a container has reached its volumetric capacity before
reaching the permitted weight limit.
Cube Rate Rate based on space instead of weight and used for light bulky
Cubic Capacity Carrying capacity of a container according to measurement
in cubic feet.
Customs Brokers Specialists in customs procedures, who act for importers
for a fee, licensed by Treasury Department.
Customs Tariff Schedule of charges assessed by the government on
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DOT Department of Transportation.
Damage Claim (Freight) Demand upon carrier reimbursement for physical
injury to shipment or because shipment was not delivered within reasonable time.
Data Plate Sign attached to container giving details of
De Facto Latin phrase meaning "in fact," used to describe
situation that exists regardless of any other condition.
One leg of a move with either a tractor alone or a tractor
pulling an empty container.
Dead Weight Tonnage (DWT) Estimated number of tons of cargo a vessel can
carry when loaded to maximum depth, obtained by subtracting displacement "light"
and "loaded" tonnage and expressed in long term (2,240 lbs.) or metric tons
(1,000 kgs.); serve as basis for rates when vessels operate on time charges.
Declared Value 1) Assumed value of shipment unless shipper declares
higher amount, e.g., air freight declare value on most shipments has been 50 cents a
pound, or $50, whichever is greater; 2) process of stating lower value on a shipment to
obtain a lower rate.
Deferred Rebate Return of portion of freight charges by
carrier/conference to shipper in exchange for shipper giving all/most shipments to carrier
over a specific period of time (usually six months), payment of rebate is deferred for
similar period; system is illegal in U.S. foreign commerce but is generally accepted in
ocean trade between foreign countries.
Delta Nu Alpha Transportation fraternity.
Penalty for exceeding free time (generally 48 hours) allowed
for loading/unloading under terms of railroad/ocean tariffs; detention is used to mean the
same thing for motor carriers.
Density Weight per cubic feet or kg per cubic meter of space occupied by
the article/dimensional weight.
Deregulation Revisions or complete elimination of economic regulations
controlling transportation. The Motor Carrier Act of 1980 and the Staggers Rail Act of
1980 revised the economic controls over motor carriers and railroads, while the Airline
Deregulation Act of 1978 will eventually eliminate economic control over air carriers.
Derived Demand The demand for transportation of a product is derived for
the demand for the product at some location.
Desiccant Material that absorbs moisture by physical/chemical action,
e.g., calcium chloride; desicants are included in packages to keep contents from suffering
Discrimination Differences in rates not justified by costs; e.g., two
shipments move under same circumstances but for different charges.
Devanning The discharging of cargo from a container.
Differential 1) Amount added to/deducted from base rate to make rate
to/from some other point or via another route; 2) part of power train of vehicle
containing gears that convert rotation of drive shaft to turn wheels/axles.
Dispatcher Person who schedules/controls truck pickups, deliveries, e.g.,
assigns drivers/vehicles to jobs/records departures/return times, investigates over-due
vehicles, issues equipment, establishes routes.
Displacement Tonnage Weight in long tons of water displacement by
capacity of vessel and its cargo.
Distance Rate Systems Based on tapering rate principle in which rates
increase with distance, but not as fast as distance itself, distances rates are often
established for key ports.
Distribution Warehouse A warehouse that stores finished goods and from
which customer orders are assembled.
Diversion Change made in consignee, destination, route of shipment while
Dock 1) Area at warehouse/manufacturing plant where goods are loaded,
unloaded and sorted; 2) slip/waterway between two protections to receive vessels while
taking on/discharging cargo/passengers.
Dock Receipt A steamship company form, evidencing receipt of the goods at
a pier. Copies of this form are made available to shippers as a means of expediting
handling at piers. The dock receipt controls the ownership of the goods until the ocean
bill of lading is issued.
Door-to-Door Through transportation of a container/trailer and it
contents from consignors loading facility to consignees unloading facility.
Double Stack Railcar movement of containers stacked two high.
Draft (Bill of Exchange) Terms used interchangeably, bill of exchange is
instrument drawn by one person ordering second person to pay definite sum of money to
third person on sight (sight draft) or at definite future time (time draft).
Draft (Vessel) Depth of water necessary to float vessel.
Drawback Refund of customs duties paid on material imported and later
Transportation of freight by truck, primarily in local cartage.
Drop Shipment Shipment sent directly from manufacturer to
retailer/industrial customer, even though ordered through wholesaler, who takes title to
goods and usual wholesale discount.
Dual Operation A motor carrier that has both common and contract carrier
Dual-Rate System An international water carrier pricing system where a
shipper signing an exclusive-use agreement with the conference pays a lower rate (10%
to15%) than non-signing shippers for an identical shipment.
Dunnage Cardboard, lumber or other filler material used to stabilize
shipment, does not include packaging.
Duty Tax levied by government on import/export consumption goods.
DWT (Deadweight Tonnage) Estimated number of tons of cargo a
vessel can carry when loaded to maximum depth.
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ETA Estimated time of arrival
ETD Estimated time of departure
EDI Electronic Data Interchangeable
Embargo 1) When freight is not accepted at certain points or via certain
routes for particular destinations because of some emergency/problem at destination; 2)
detention of vessels in port by order of government, usually issued in time of
Equipment Interchange Receipt (EIR) Form used by parties
delivering/receiving containers/container equipment, used for equipment control and damage
Estoppel Legal document used in court of law to establish liability.
Etiologic Agents As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49
CFR, viable microorganisms or their toxins, which cause/may cause human disease.
European Economic Community (EEC) Common Market Nations of Europe.
Ex Prefix meaning "out of" or "from", used in
conjunction with noun of location, means all charges for transportation, and risks of
loss/damage are chargeable to account of buyer when goods are delivered to carrier at
Exception Rate A deviation from the class rate; changes are made to the
Exclusive Use Carrier vehicles that are assigned to a specific shipper
for its exclusive use.
Exempt Carrier Motor carrier engaged in for-hire transportation of
commodities, exempt from economic regulations by ICC under provision Interstate Commerce
Act, generally agricultural commodities or seafood.
Moving shipments through regular channels at accelerated rate,
an example of dispatching less-than-truckload (LTL) quantities on a single truck for quick
As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR
any chemical compound mixture or device, the primary or common purpose for which is to
function by explosion, within the explosives definition, there are further divisions into
Class A, B, C and Blasting Agents.
Export Declaration A document required by the Department of Commerce that
provides information as to the nature, value, etc., of export activity.
Export Letter-of-Credit When importer has arranged with bank for
letter-of-credit financing of purchases, he applies for issuance of individual letters of
credit to cover purchase contracts as made.
Export License Certificate granting holder permission to export goods.
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FAK Freight All Kind.
FCL Full Container Load. The maximum permissible weight for the value of
the cargo carried in a container.
FDA Food and Drug Administration.
FIFO First In, First Out; Warehousing term meaning first items stored are
the first used.
FOB Free on board.
Agent appointed to sell goods on commission, also known as a
Fair Market Value Sum that sale of article would bring under ordinary
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Division of U.S. Department of
Transportation in charge of nations highway system that administers federal aid for
highway construction, develops safety standards/programs and has jurisdiction over safety
of commercial motor carriers engaged in interstate/foreign commerce.
Federal Maritime Commission A regulatory agency that controls services,
practices and agreements of international water common carriers and noncontiguous domestic
Federal Register Government publication that prints rules/regulations of
federal agencies on a daily basis; rules and regulations must be published to become legal
in most cases.
In intermodal context, a pickup/delivery vehicle/ship.
Feeder Service Coastal movements of loaded/empty containers on board
smaller container vessels which coordinate with a "mother ship" for the ocean
Filing of Tariffs Requirements that tariff/supplements/reissues/other
schedules be in the hands of the regulation body (ICC for example) at specified time prior
to effective date.
Fiscal Year Annual period established for accounting purposes in business
or government, may start at any time in calendar year.
Flag-of-Convenience A ship owner registers a ship in a nation that offers
conveniences in the area of taxes, manning, and safety requirements; Liberia and Panama
are two nations known for flags of convenience.
Flammable Liquid As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49
CFR, any liquid having a flash point below 100 degrees F except liquids which meet
definition of compressed gas or that are part of a mixture where other components with
flash points above 100 degrees F make up at least 99% of the mixture.
Flammable Solid As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49
CFR, any solid material other than an explosive, which under conditions incidental to
transportation is liable to cause fires through friction, retained heat from manufacturing
processing or which can be ignited readily.
Flash Point Minimum temperature at which substance gives off flammable
vapors which will ignite when they come in contact with spark or flame.
Flash Vessels Feeder LASH vessels, which are shallow-draft vessels
suitable to carry 8 to 15 LASH barges at a time, towed by seagoing vessels.
Flatbed Trailer with level bed and no sides or tops.
Flat-Rack Container A container with no sides and frame members at the
front and rear of the container. Container can be loaded from the sides and top.
Floor Load Rating Weight that can be safety supported by floor expression
in pounds per square foot.
FOB Destination Freight cost paid to point of destination, title
transfers at destination.
FOB Factory Title to goods and transportation responsibility transfers
from seller to factory.
FOB Vessel Title/transportation costs transfer after goods are delivered
on vessel, all export taxes/costs involved in overseas shipments are assessed to buyer.
Slang term for amount of tire tread on the ground.
For-Hire Carrier A carrier that provides transportation service to the
public on a fee basis.
Force Majeure Condition in contract that relieves either party from
obligation where major unforeseen events prevent compliance with provisions of agreement.
Fore & Aft The direction on a vessel parallel to the centerline.
Foreign Trade Zones Goods subject to duty may be brought into such zones
duty-free for transshipment/storage/minor manipulating/sorting; duty must be paid when/if
goods are brought from zone into any part of United States.
Forklift Freight/materials handling vehicle used in loading/unloading
Forwarding Agent Firm specializing in shipping goods abroad, payments
made for insurance and other expense are charged to foreign buyer.
Free Along Side (FAS) Selling term in international trade when selling
party quotes price including delivery of good along side overseas vessel at exporting
Free Time The amount of time allowed by a carrier for the loading or
unloading of freight at the expiration of which demurrage or detention charges will
Freight Bill The carriers invoice for transportation charges
applicable to a freight shipment.
Freight Forwarder 1) Individual/company that accepts less-than-truckload
(LTL) shipments and consolidates them into truckload lots on for-hire basis for shippers;
2) agent who helps expedite shipments by preparing necessary documents/making other
arrangements for moving of freight; 3) designated as a common carrier under the Interstate
Freight In Bond Goods shipped under control/ownership of Government until
duty is paid.
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GBI Government bill of lading.
Gage (Gauge o Track) Distance between heads of rails, measured at right
angles at point 5/8-inch below top of rail, standard gage is 4 ft. 8-1/2 in., narrower
gage is frequently employed by construction/scenic areas.
Point at which freight is interchanged/interlined between
carriers or at which carrier joints two operating authorities provision of through
General Average Ancient principle in Maritime law in which all
parties in a sea voyage share losses resulting from a voluntary and successful
sacrifice of part of the ship or cargo in order to save the entire voyage from
peril or extraordinary expense.
General Cargo Term applying to ships loading comprising a variety
of goods/articles and not confined to a single commodity.
Gondola A railcar with a flat platform and sides 3 to 5 feet high; used
for top loading of items that are long and heavy.
Gooseneck The front rails of the chassis that rise above the plane of the
chassis and engage in the tunnel of a container.
Grandfather Clause 1) Allows firm that has been doing business in an area
to continue, despite new regulations that might ordinarily preclude operation; 2) used by
Interstate Commerce Commission to grant authority to carrier to operate over routes where
it or a predecessor was in bona fide operation on June 1, 1935.
Gross Weight The combined weight of a container, its payload and any
other loose internal fittings.
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Hazardous Materials Substance/material determined and designated by
Secretary of Transportation to be capable of posing unreasonable risk to health, safety
and property when transported in commerce.
High Cube Any container that exceeds 86" (102 inches) in
Highway Carriers Divided into following classes; regular route (line
haul), long-haul/transcontinental carriers, regular route (line haul), short-haul
carriers, irregular route carriers, specific commodity carriers, intrastate carriers,
interstate carriers and local cartage/pickup/distribution carriers.
Hundredweight (CWT) The pricing unit used in transportation; a
hundredweight is equal to 100 pounds.
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IBID Latin term meaning "in the same place."
I. S. O. Organization for International Standards.
In Bond Storage of goods in custody of government/bonded warehouse or
carrier from which goods can be taken only upon payment of taxes/duties to appropriate
In Transit Load proceeding along route between home terminal and
Incentive Rate A rate designed to induce the shipper to ship heavier
volumes per shipment.
Indemnify To compensate/repay for loss sustained.
Inflatable Dunnage Flexible bags usually made from vinyl material, which
can be inflated within the void spaces of a container/trailer to prevent movement of
Inland Carrier A Transportation line which hauls export or import traffic
between ports and inland points.
Insurance Contractual relationship which exists when one party, for a
consideration, agrees to reimburse another for loss caused by designated contingencies;
first party is insurer, second is insured, contract is insurance policy, consideration is
premium property in question is risk, contingency in question is hazard/peril.
Integrated Tow Barge A Series of barges that are connects together to
operate as one unit.
Inter Alia Latin phrase meaning "among other things."
Interchange Process of passing freight from one carrier to another
Intercoastal Carriers Water carriers that transport freight between the
east coast and west-coast ports usually by way of the Panama Canal.
Interline Freight Freight moving from origin to destination over lines of
two or more transportation lines.
Intermodal Transportation Using more than one mode to deliver shipment,
e.g., trailer on flatcar (TOFC) or container on floater (COFC).
Internal Water Carriers Water carriers that operate over the internal
navigable rivers, such as the Mississippi, Ohio and Missouri.
Literally means between states, applies to transportation of
goods/persons from point in one state to point in another, between point in same state but
passing within/through another state enroute, between points in United States and foreign
Interstate Commerce When all business between buyers/sellers is carried
on within state.
Irregular-Route Carrier A motor carrier that is permitted to provide
service using any route.
Irritating Material As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in
49 CFR, liquid or solid substance which upon contact with fire or when exposed to air
gives off dangerous or intensely irritating fumes; does not include any material classed
as Poison A.
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Joint Rate Agreed upon by two or more carriers, published in a single
tariff and applying between point on line of another, may include one or more immediate
carriers in route.
Just-In-Time Umbrella term including elements of both Kanban and MRP II
systems; used in contrast to older just-in-case practices of large inventories/stockpiles.
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Japanese word, translated "visible record," for
manufacturing control system in which supplies deliver needed parts to assembly line
"just in time" for use, e.g., parts not stocked; affects purchasing materials
management, inventory control and production management. Paper cards are used for record
keeping/control. Pronounced "conbon", term is primarily associated with Toyota,
but has become a generic term in the USA.
Kickback Rebate, usually given to person who is in position to
purchase/order transportation service for his/her firm.
Knot Unit of speed Nautical mile per hour.
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LCL Less than carload; term refers to load weighing less than amount
necessary to apply carload rate charged by railroads for transportation.
LTL Less than truckload; term refers to less than quantity of freight
required to apply truckload (TL) rate charged by motor carriers for transportation. A
shipment weighing less than the minimum weight needed to use the lower truckload rate.
Land Bridge Intermodal system of getting international cargo across
intervening continent from one seacoast to another by special through trains.
Landed Cost Total expense of receiving goods/merchandise at place of
retail sale including retail purchase price and transportation charges.
Landing Gear Device that supports at end of semi-trailer when not
attached to tractor.
LASH Lighter-Aboard-Ship vessels that carry barges. They are equipped
with an overhead crane capable of lifting LASH barges and stowing them into cellular slots
in athwartship position.
Last In, First Out (LIFO) Accounting method of valuing inventory that
assumes latest goods purchased are first goods used during accounting period, opposite of
first in, first out (FIFO).
Lay Time Period of time in which ship is loaded/unloaded and for which no
demurrage is charged.
Quarantined area for fumigating goods that might be carrying
Lead Time the total elapse time between order placement and order
receipt. Includes time required for order transmittal, order processing, and preparation,
as well as time in transit.
Legal Weight Weight of goods and interior packing, but not the
containers weight (term used commonly in foreign trade). A maximum weight limitation
for a total highway unit; this maximum is established by highway authorities, which, if
exceeded, may subject carriers to fines or impounding of vehicles.
Party, firm or corporation with legal possession/control of
vehicle (with/without) driver or other equipment owned by another under terms of lease
Lessor Party, firm or corporation granting legal use of vehicle
(with/without) driver or other equipment to another party under the terms of lease
Letter of Credit (L/C) Method of payment for good in which buyer
establishes credit with local bank, clearly describing goods to be purchased, price,
documentation required and time limit for completion of transaction; upon receipt of
documentation, bank is either paid by buyer or takes title to goods and transfers funds to
seller, may be revocable or irrevocable.
Lift-On/Lift-Off (LO/LO) Carriage of containers on decks or on flat racks
of water vessels.
Flat-bottomed boat, usually moved by tugs but can also be steam
powered, used to transfer freight between cars, piers and vessels.
Movement of freight between cities, usually more than 1,000
miles, not including pickup and delivery service.
Liner Ocean vessel engaged in carriage of general cargo (including
passengers) along definite route on fixed schedule.
Liner Service International Water carriers that ply fixed routes on
Live Axle Axle driven by engine as compared to dead axle that only
follows as pulled.
Yearly document issued by Lloyds containing
tonnage, age, build, character and condition of registered ships.
Load Displacement Vessels load capacity according to structure
Loading Line Guide on ship indicating to what depth it has sunk with
lading, serves as safety factor.
Long Ton Equivalent to 2,240 pounds or 20 long hundred weights, also
called gross ton.
Longshoreman Person employed on wharves of port to load/unload vessels.
Loss and Damage (L&D) Usually applied when loss/damage is discovered
when package is delivered.
Luffing Angular movement of crane in vertical plane.
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Major Carrier A for-hire certificated air carrier with annual operating
revenues of $1 billion or more; carrier usually operates between major traffic centers.
Writ issued y court requiring specific actions to be taken.
Manifest 1) Document signed by master of ship setting forth
description/destination of goods shipped; 2) listing of shipments in load by pro
Marine Registry Listing vessel under name of nation whose flag it flies;
ship owners often register under most favorable/lenient flags.
AN U.S. Government agency that promotes the
merchant marine, determines ocean ship routes and services equipment, and awards maritime
Maximum Cube A level of cube utilization that closely approximates the
stated cubic capacity of a container.
Maximum Gross Weight Weight of container and its payload.
Metric Ton Measure of weight equal to 1,000 kilograms, or about 2,200
pounds, symbols is it, also called tonne.
Microbridge Provides for intermodal transport of freight from inland city
to seaport with through movement transfer of container freight onto overseas ship.
Mortgage Conveyance of property, real or personal, to person called
mortgagee to secure performance of some act such as payment of money by mortgagor becomes
void upon performance of act.
Motor Carrier Act of 1935 Act of Congress effective October 1 1935; Part
II of the Interstate Commerce Act brought motor common and contract carriers under
jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) incorporated into Revised Interstate
Commerce Act of 1978.
Motor Common Carrier Entity holding itself out to general public to
provide motor vehicle transportation for compensation over regular or irregular routes, or
MRP II Manufacturing Resource Planning-System of manufacturing controls
using computers; as in Kanban systems affect purchasing materials management, inventory
control and production management as well as peripheral manufacturing activities
(older meaning of MRP is "materials requirements planning," Roman numeral II was
added to flag change.
Mule 1) Small vehicle used for moving two-axle dollies; 2) yard tractor
Using more than one mode of transportation to move load of
goods, e.g., truck, train, ship, usually for imported/exported goods.
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NOI Not otherwise indexed.
Negligence Failure to exercise degree of care demanded by law.
Nesting Fitting one article of cargo inside the other to economize space.
Net Figures/totals remaining after all charges/deductions have been
Net Tare Weight The weight of an empty container plus any fixtures
Net Ton 2,000 pounds.
Net Ton-Mile Movement of ton of freight one mile.
Net Tonnage (Vessel) Gross tonnage minus deductions for space occupied by
crew quarters, machinery for navigation, engine room and fuel.
Net Weight 1) Weight of article without packing and container; 2) weight
of entire contents of vehicle.
Node A fixed point in a firms logistics system where goods come to
rest; plants, warehouses, supply sources, market destination.
Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) Cargo consolidator of small
shipments in ocean trade, generally soliciting business and arranging for/performing
containerization functions at the port.
Nose Front of the container.
Notice of Arrival On arrival of freight at destination, notice is
promptly sent to consignee showing number of packages, description of articles, route,
rate, weight, car initial and number, amount of freight charges station where
delivery will be made and time allowed for removal before demurrage/storage charges
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OS & D Over, Short and Damaged; report issued at warehouse when goods
are damaged, used to file claim with carrier.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Ocean Bill of Lading Issued by ocean carrier for marine transport of
goods; provides terms of carrier between shipper/forwarder and carrier between stated
points and for specific charge.
Off Route Points Points located off regular route highways of line-haul
carriers, generally served only on irregular schedules.
On the Berth Term denoting that ship is ready to load/discharge cargo.
Open Account (O/A) Manner of supplying credit by charging goods/services
to purchasers account, payment for which is made at future date.
Open-End Lease Lessee guarantee lessor will realize minimum of value from
sale of equipment at end of lease period.
Open Insurance Policy Form of insurance covering shipments for specified
time or stated value and not limited to single shipment, most often used in marine
Operating Authority Routes, points and types of traffic that may be
served by carrier, authority is granted by state of federal regulatory agencies.
Operating Ratio Comparison of carriers operating expenses with
gross receipts; income divided by expenses.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Reading of data scanning location or
shape of data on document.
Optimum Cube The highest level of cube utilization that can be achieved
when loading cargo into an ocean-freight container.
Order Bill of Lading Contains four distinguishing features: 1) goods are
consigned to order of party named in bill of lading; 2) name and post office address of
party to notify on arrival of consignment at destination must always be written on bill;
3) negotiable document most frequently used when shippers wish to collect for value of
shipments prior to delivery; 4) printed on yellow paper to make it readily
Ordinary Livestock Defined in Interstate Commerce Act as "all
cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses and mules, except such as are chiefly valuable for
breeding, racing, show purposes and other special uses."
Outage Empty space in container/drum to accommodate natural expansion,
density change, etc., due to temperature change.
Overage Freight in excess over quantity believed to have been shipped, or
more than quantity shown on shipping document.
Overheight Cargo Cargo stowed in an open-top container that projects
above the uppermost level of the roof struts.
Over-the-Road A motor carrier operation that reflects long distance,
inter-city moves; the opposite of local operations.
Owner-Operator Driver who owns and operates his own truck; he may be a
common carrier, contract carrier, or exempt carrier; such contractor may lease rig/driver
to another carrier.
Owners Risk When owner of goods remains responsible during
shipping, relieving carrier of part of risk.
Oxidizing Material As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in
49 CFT any substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate combustion of organic matter.
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Packing List List showing merchandise packed and all particulars,
normally prepared by shipper but not necessarily required by carriers; copy is usually
sent to consignee to assist in verifying shipment received.
Pallet 1) Load board with two decks separated by bearers or single deck
supported by bearer constructed for transport/stacking and with overall height reduced to
minimum compatible with handling by forklift/pallet trucks; 2) platform used for utilizing
loads for storage/shipping, standard pallet is 48x40x5-1/2 inches usually made of wood.
System for shipping goods on comparatively lightweight,
double-decked wooden platform called pallets; permits shipment of multiple units as one
In freight transportation, profitable cargo.
Per 1) Latin word meaning "by"; 2) means of; 3) according to.
Per Diem 1) Latin term meaning "by the day"; 2) daily charge by
rail carriers for use of railcars by any other rail carriers.
Performance Bond Bond executed in connection with contract securing
performance/fulfillment of terms.
Perishable Freight Commodities subject to rapid deterioration or decay
(fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products, meats, fish) which require special
protective services in transit like refrigeration, heating, and ventilation.
Permits Authority granted by ICC to contract carriers by motor vehicle or
water and freight forwarders to operate in interstate commerce.
Physical Distribution Broad range of activities involving efficient range
of activities involving efficient movement of goods from source of raw materials through
production to consumer; activities include warehousing, material handling, packaging,
order possessing, freight transportation and other activities.
Pier The structure to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of
loading and unloading cargo.
Pier-to-House A shipment loaded into a container at the pier or terminal
then exported strictly to the consignees designated area for unloading.
Pier-to-Pier Containers loaded at port-of-loading and discharged at
Intermodal transportation system where trailers/containers are
carried on railcars; essentially joint carrier movement in which motor carrier performs
pickup/delivery operation to rail terminal, as well as delivery operation at terminating
Pigtail Slang term used for cable used to transmit electrical power to
Pilferage Taking property of others; in transportation, usually consists
of breaking into cartons/containers and removing items.
Pilot Person whose duty is to steer ships, particularly along coasts or
into/out of harbor.
Place Utility A value created in a product by changing its location.
Transportation creates place utility.
Plimsoll Mark - Identifying displacement mark (horizontal line painted on
outside of ship) as to where a vessel may safely be loaded to, must remain above surface
of water. British merchant vessels referred to as plimsoll mark.
Point of Origin Station at which shipment is received from shipper by
Poisons As defined in Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR, these
materials are further divided into two groups based on degree of hazard posed in
transportation. Poison A includes gasses or liquids that are dangerous to life if only a
small amount is mixed with air. Poison B includes substances, liquid and solid (pastes and
semi-solids also) which are known to be toxic to man that they provide a health hazard
during transportation. See also Irritating Material.
Pool A continuous supply of containers at a specific location to
facilitate continuous volume loading.
Pooling Agreement Dividing of revenue/business among two or more carriers
in accordance with previous contracts/agreements.
Port A harbor or haven where ships may anchor, or that side of the vessel
on the left hand of a person who stands on board facing the bow (front) of the vessel.
Port Authority A state or local government that owns, operates or
otherwise provides wharf, dock and other terminal investments at ports.
Port Charges Charges assessed for services performed at ports, including
lighterage, pilotage, towage, harbor dues, dockage and wharfage.
Predatory Charges n Temporary pricing action by one firm to point below
variable costs that has effect of removing competing firm from market.
Private Carrier A carrier that provides transportation service to the
firm that owns or leases the vehicles and does not charge a fee. Private motor carriers
may haul for a fee for wholly owned subsidiaries.
Pro Forma Invoice Document used largely for banking purposes, abbreviated
invoice sent in advance of shipment, usually to enable buyer to obtain import permit,
exchange permit or both.
Pro Number Any progressive or serial number applied for identification to
freight bills, bills of lading, etc.
Product Liability Liability imposed for damages caused by accident and
arising out of goods/products manufactured, sold, handled or distributed by insured or
others trading under his name.
Proof of Liability Copy of waybill signed by consignee at time of
delivery as receipt.
Proportional Rate Lower than normal rate on segment of through movement
to encourage traffic or capture competitive traffic, may be percentage of standard rate or
flat rate that is lower between given points.
Public Warehouse Storage place renting space o anyone desiring it; there
are five types: 1) ordinary or merchandise; 2) commodity; 3) household goods; 4) cold
storage; 5) field or branch; some states regard public warehouses as public utilities and
fix their rates.
Purchase Order Form used by purchaser when placing order for merchandise
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Quality Circles Groups of workers formed to improve quality and
productivity, usually task/oriented with voluntary participation.
Quality Control the management function that attempts to ensure that the
goods or services manufactured or purchased meet the product or service specifications.
Quay Manmade docking area for loading/unloading vessels, docking is
parallel allowing loading/ unloading from one side of ship.
Quoin A wedged-shaped piece of timber used to secure barrels, preventing
movement during transit.
Many governments have established quotas of limiting imports by
class of goods or country of origin, sometimes importing countries require issuance of
licenses before American firms may ship to them.
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Radioactive Material As defined in Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49
CFR, any material or combination of materials which spontaneously emits ionizing radiation
and has a specific gravity greater than 0.002 microcuries per gram. The regulations
include many more specific designations of radioactivity.
Rate Established shipping charge for movement of goods in interstate
transportation price/rate is approved by Interstate Commerce Commission, intrastate by
public service commission or similar body.
Rate Basis Formula of specific factors/elements that control making of
Rate War When carriers cut rates in an effort to secure tonnage, can
occur in all commodities.
Reasonable Rate A rate that is high enough to cover the carriers
cost but not too high to enable carrier to realize monopolistic profits.
Re-Insurance Insurance of all/part of risk by another insurer, previously
assumed by an insurance company.
Unlawful practice in which carrier returns part of transportation
charges to shipper, done to encourage shipper to use the same carrier again.
Reciprocity 1) An exchange of rights, in motor transportation may involve
granting equal rights, vehicles of several states in which reciprocity agreements are in
effect; 2) to give performance in buying to vendors who are customers of buying company.
Reefer Slang term for refrigerated trailer for hauling perishables,
sometimes used in reference to other types of transportation equipment, e.g., reefer car
referring to railcar with refrigeration equipment.
Register (of Ships) Vessel must be registered in merchant marine of some
country after inspection, rating, measurement, etc.; this register kept by collector of
customs, contains names, ownership and other facts relative to vessels.
Regular-Route Carrier A motor carrier that is authorized to provide
service over designated routes.
Relay Terminal A motor-carrier terminal designed to facilitate the
substitution of one driver for another who has driven the maximum hours permitted.
A carrier-selection criterion that considers the variation in
carrier-transit time; the consistency of the transit time provided.
Repartion (Order) Redress in form of adjustment/reimbursement on account
of unjust/unreasonable charge assessed after situation has been proved to Interstate
Legal action instituted to recover possessions of property
unlawfully taken or detained; this recovery would be accomplished through court action.
Restricted Articles Commodities that can be handled only under certain
A force causing container and cargo to move fore, aft and
Application of law, rule, tariff provision, etc., to time
before law/rule became effective.
Risk 1) Term usually applied to insurance as a measurement of probability
of loss; 2) degree to which investor exposes himself to possibility of loss of money.
The side to side (athwartship) motion of a vessel.
Rolling Stock Freight/passenger cars owned by rail carrier, not including
motive power equipment; also buses, trucks and trailers owned by motor carriers.
Roll-On/Roll-Off (RO/RO) Feature in specially constructed vessel
permitting vehicles to drive on/off vessel in loading/discharging ports.
Route 1) Course/direction that shipment moves; 2) to designate course
direction shipment shall move; 3) carrier(s) with junction points over which shipment
1) Process of determining how shipment will move between origin
and destination; routing information includes designation of carrier(s) involved, actual
route of carrier and estimated time enroute; 2) right of shipper to determine carriers,
routes and points for transfer on FTL and FCL shipments.
Running Gear Complementary equipment for terminal and over-the-road
handling of containers.
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Salvage Loss In marine insurance, loss sustained by necessary sale of
goods at port prior to expected destination because of "perils of the sea;"
treated as total loss with amount realized from sale of goods credited on amount payable
Scale of Rates Numerous rates adjusted in relation to each other.
Scow Hollow/flat-bottomed boat used for transporting gravel, sand and
similar bulk commodities.
Sea-Bee Vessel Ocean vessel constructed with heavy-duty submersible
hydraulic-lift or elevator system located at the stern of the vessel. The See-Bee system
moves barges from one inland coastal water system to another; Sea-Bee barges are larger
than LASH barges.
Seal Device applied to freight car/motor vehicle door fastening which
shows that door fastening where its applied has not been tampered with between time
of application and time of breaking seal.
Seaworthiness Sufficiency of vessel in materials, construction,
equipment, officers and crew for voyage/ service where employed; an implied condition of
all policies of marine insurance unless otherwise specifically stipulated.
Self-Insurance Assumption of risk without insurance coverage through
systematic provision of funds to provide for loss which individual/firm may suffer.
Semi Slang term for semi-trailer, also used loosely in referring to
Ship Agent A liner company or tramp ship operator representative who
facilitates ship arrival, clearance, loading/unloading, and fee payment while at a
Ship Broker A firm that serves as a go-between for the tramp ship owner
and the chartering consignor or consignee.
Ship Chandler One who furnishes everything necessary to equip vessel.
Shippers Agent A firm that acts primarily to match up small
shipments, especially single-traffic piggyback loads to permit use of twin-trailer
Ships Papers Merchant vessel is required to carry these documents:
1) register; 2) log book; 3) charter party, if chartered; 4) muster roll or list of crew;
5) ships articles; 6) bill of health; 7) bill of lading or duplicate receipts of
cargo from master to shippers; 8) manifest or general statement of cargo; 9) invoices or
detailed statements of cost of goods; 10) clearance or permission from authorities to
sail; 11) certificate of inspection; 12) passenger list of passengers are carried; 13)
bill of sale (ship has been sold by citizens of one country to citizens of another
together with consular certificate; 14) officers licenses and; 15) license to carry
on port trade.
Shipment 1) Lot of freight tendered to carry by one consignee at one
place at one time for delivery to the consignee at one place on one bill of lading; 2)
goods/merchandise in one or more containers, pieces or parcels for transportation from one
shipper to single destination.
Shippers Certificate Form filled out presented by shipper to
outbound carrier at transit point (together with instructions and inbound carriers
freight bill), asking for reshipping privilege and transit rate on commodity previously
brought into transit point.
Shippers Export Declaration (SED) Form required by Treasury
Department and completed by shipper showing value, weight, consignee, destination, etc.,
export of shipments as well as Schedule B identification.
Short Shipment Piece of freight missing from shipment. Cargo received is
less than what is stipulated by documents on hand.
Sight Draft Sight draft, COD international trade, usually calls for
release of bills of lading and all other documents making up commercial to set buyer
against cash payments to collecting bank.
Skids Battens or a series of parallel runners fitted beneath boxes or
packages to raise them clear of the floor to permit easy access of forklift blades or
other handling equipment.
Sliding Tandem An assembly rigged on a chassis that may be shifted to
adjust axle weights.
Dry commodities that are made into a liquid form by the addition
of water or other fluids to permit pumping through pipelines.
Placing a railcar to be loaded/unloaded.
Spreader Device for spreading lifting cables on frame to provide balanced
lift on four corners of container allowing load to be lifted straight up.
Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) Numerical code
developed by United Nations and adopted by United States airlines as basis for numerical
identification of commodities moving in air freight.
Right side of ship.
Statutory Notice Length of time required by law for carriers to give
notice of changes in tariffs, rates, rules and regulations usually thirty day,
unless otherwise permitted by authority from Interstate Commerce Commission or other
Steamship Conferences Collective rate-making bodies for liner water
Person having charge of loading/unloading of ships.
Stow To arrange in compact mass, e.g., stow cargo in hold of ship.
Straddle Carrier Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a
container within its own framework.
Straight Bill of Lading Non-negotiable document provides that shipment is
to be delivered direct to party whose name is shown as consignee, carrier does not require
its surrender upon delivery except when needed to identify consignee.
Stripping In truck transportation, emptying truck of cargo and arranging
shipments by destination.
Stuffing Slang term for loading cargo container.
Right of an insurance company to recover amount paid to
insured from third party that may have caused loss.
An add-on charge to the applicable charges; motor carriers have
a fuel surcharge and railroads can apply a surcharge to any joint rate that does not yield
110 percent of variable cost.
Surety Bond Contract between principal and responsible third party
(surety) which makes surety momentarily responsible for principals fulfillment of
obligation to obligee (party who is protected).
Systems Concept A decision-making strategy that emphasizes overall
efficiency of the whole rather than the efficiency of the individual parts of the system.
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TOFC Trailer-on-flatcar, also called piggyback, shipments moving TOFC
receive special rates from tariffs providing for that class or tariff.
Tandem A truck that has two drive-axles or a trailer that has two axles.
Tank built into standard frame and used to transport liquids.
Tapering Rate A rate that increases with distances but not in direct
proportion to the distance the commodity is shipped.
Tare Amount of gross weight that can be deducted from packing weight,
usually allowance is four pounds per 104 pounds.
Tare Weight 1) Weight of container and material used for packaging; 2) in
transportation terms, weight of car/truck exclusive of contents.
Tariff (Transportation) - Printed price list issued by carrier showing
Temporary Authority The Interstate Commerce Commission may grant a
temporary operating authority as a common carrier for up to 270 days.
Tender Offer of goods for transportation by shipper or offer of delivery
on part of carrier.
An assigned area in which containers are prepared to be loaded
into a vessel or are stacked immediately after discharge from the vessel; any assigned
area for the loading/unloading temporary storage of vehicles, or the interchange of
freight during transit.
TEU Twenty-foot equivalent unit (6.10 m). A standard unit for counting
containers of various lengths and for describing the capacities of container ships or
terminals. One standard 40-foot, ISOS series 1 container equals 2 TEUs.
Through Bill of Lading Covers goods, moving from point of origin to final
destination, even though transfers are made to different carriers in transit.
Time Draft Draft maturing at certain fixed time after
Time Utility A value created in a product by having the product available
at a time desired; transportation and warehousing create time utility.
Title Document which confers on holder right of
ownership/possess/transfer of merchandise specified, e.g., bills of lading and warehouse
Ton Long ton, 2,240 pounds; short ton, 2,000 pounds; metric ton, 2,206.6
Tonnage 1) Carrying capacity of ship/vessel; 2) tax/duty paid on such
capacity; 3) weight ship will carry expressed in tons.
Tort Wrong, other than breach of contract, committed upon person/property
Tracing Determine where a shipment is during the course of a move.
Traffic Department/division responsible for obtaining most economical
commodity classification and method of transporting materials and products; people and/or
property carried by transportation companies.
Traffic Management The management of activities associated with buying
and controlling transportation services for a shipper or consignee or both.
Tramp Vessel that does not operate along definite route on fixed
schedule, but calls at any port where cargo is available.
Transit Time The total time that elapses from pickup to delivery of a
The practice of breaking (transferring) bulk shipments from
the vehicle/container of one mode to that of another at one or a series of terminal
interchange points. Usually transloading involves transporting a continuous volume of
similar products, creating a rolling (in-transit) inventory of the products.
Term commonly used to denote transfer of goods from one means
of transportation to another, rehandling of goods enroute.
Trip Charter Hiring vessel to haul cargo for special voyage.
Twist Locks A set of four, twistable bayonet-type, shear keys used as
part of a spreader to pick up a container or as part of a chassis to secure containers.
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UCC Uniform Commercial Code
U.S. Customs Bonded Warehouse Until import duty (if required) is paid,
federal government retains control of goods; imports awaiting collection of duty must be
stored at importers expense in custody of warehouse willing/able to furnish bond
that commodities will not be released until necessary duties are paid.
Ullage Empty space present when cask/container is not full.
Unit Train An entire, uninterrupted locomotive-car-and-caboose movement
between an origin and destination; rail movement of large tonnages of single-bulk products
between two points.
The consolidation of a quantity of individual items into one
large shipping unit for easier handling; loading one or more large items of cargo onto a
single piece of equipment such as a pallet.
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Value Added Tax
(VAT) Government imposed taxation on import cargo.
Value-of-Service Pricing Pricing according to the value of the product being
transported; third degree price of discrimination; demand-oriented pricing, charges what
the traffic will bear.
Valuation Actual Actual value of goods shown on bill of lading by shipper
when rate to be applied depends on value.
Vanning A term sometimes used for stowing cargo in a container.
Generally, craft used or intended to be used as means of
transportation by water.
Vessel Ton 100 cubic feet.
Volatility 1) Ability of liquid to vaporize; 2) Explosivity.
Voyage Charter Engaging services of ship (cargo) for specified trip from
one port to another at established tonnage rate.
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Waiver 1) Written statement canceling previous claim/right, usually
refers to only one person or specific situation; 2) intentionally forfeiting a right
Place for receiving/storing goods and merchandise for-hire
warehouseman is bound to use ordinary diligence in preserving goods.
Wastage Loss of goods due to handling, decay, leakage, shrinkage, etc.
Waybill (WB) - Document containing description of goods that are part of common
carrier freight shipment, also shows origin, destination, consignee/consignor and amount
charged; copies travel with goods and are retained by carrier for internal record and
control, especially during transit; not a transportation contract.
Weight Break The shipment volume at which the LTL charges equal to TL
charges at the minimum weight.
Weigh Station Permanent station equipped with scales at which motor
vehicles transporting property on public highways are required to stop for checking of
gross vehicle and/or axle weights; many states also use portable scales to compliance with
their weight limits; also often combined with port of entry facilities.
In shipping, weight is qualified further as gross (weight of goods
and container), net (weight of goods themselves without any container) and legal (similar
to net, determined in such manner as law of particular country/jurisdiction may direct).
Wharf Loading/discharging terminal built parallel to stream/shore line.
Wharfage 1) Charges made for handling traffic on wharf; 2) charge made
for docking vessels at wharf.
Without Recourse When drafts are negotiated without recourse, beneficiary
is relieved of responsibility to holder of draft to extent permissible under contract
involved and under law governing transaction.
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(No Terms and Definitions available at this time)
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Yard (Freight) Unit of track systems within certain area used for storing
cars, loading/unloading freight and making up trains, over which movements not authorized
by timetable or train order may be made, subject to prescribed signals/regulations.
Livestock shipped to stockyards is subject to yardage charges in
addition to transportation and other charges, usually assessed on basis of so much per
head, varying in amount according to type of livestock.
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Zone of Reasonableness A zone or limit within which air carriers are
permitted to change rates without regulatory scrutiny; if the rate change is within the
zone, the new rate is presumed to be reasonable.
Zone-of-Trade Flexibility Railroads are permitted to raise rates by a
percentage increased in the railroad cost index determined by the ICC; rates may be raised
by 4 percent.