Glossary of Terms & Links

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A-1 - Term used to signify a first class ocean vessel.

Abandonment - 1) Proceeding where a carrier seeks authorization to stop service over all or part of its route/line or to give up ownership/control of cargo or vessel must be approved by the ICC in the case of motor or rail proceedings; 2) shipper or consignee relinquishes damaged freight, carrier or refuses to accept delivery; 3) in marine insurance giving up title to partly destroyed property to the insurers; 4) the act of relinquishing title to damaged or lost property in order to claim a total loss.

Absolute Liability - Condition in which carrier is responsible for all liability and is not protected by the normal exemptions found in bill of lading or common law liability.

Abstract - Abridgement of evidence omitting non-essential items; used especially in regulatory proceedings

Acceptance - 1) Acknowledged receipt by consignee of a shipment terminating the common carrier contract; 2) a promise to pay, usually evidenced by inscribing across the face of the bill "accepted", followed by the date, the place payable, and the acceptor’s signature.

Accessorial Charges - Charges for supplementary services and privileges provided in connection with line-haul transportation of goods. These charges are not included in the freight charge and usually take the form of a flat fee. Some examples are: pickup-delivery, in-transit privileges, demurrage, switching, loading/unloading, weighing, storage, inspection, grading, repackaging, billing, and fabrication.

Actual Gross Weight - The sum of the container weight, tractor pulling it and the payload contained in it.

Actual Payload - Actual weight of commodity being transported (actual gross weight minus tare weight).

Ad Hoc - Latin phrase meaning "for this"; in business used to indicate a single end or purpose, a onetime application e.g., an ad hoc investigating committee.

Ad Valorem – Latin phrase meaning "according to value"; freight rates set at a certain fixed percentage of the value of articles, e.g., the wholesale price of the articles are known as ad valorem rates.

Advanced Charge – Freight or charge on a shipment that is advanced by one transportation company or another, or to the shipper, to be collected from the consignee.

Advice of Shipment – Notice to local or foreign buyer that shipment has occurred with details of packing, routing, etc.; a copy of invoice is usually enclosed and sometimes a copy of the bill of lading.

Affidavit – Written statement which must be witnessed and sworn to before a notary public or other officer who has authority to administer oaths or affirmations.

Afloat – Commodities underway in water transit, either actually aboard vessels at sea or in port but yet unloaded.

Agent – 1) A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another; 2) a broker.

Aggregated Shipments – Several shipments from different shippers to a single consignee, consolidated and treated as a single consignment.

All-Risk Insurance – Name given to a policy which covers against loss caused by all perils except those which are specifically excluded in the terms of the policy. Ordinarily policies name the peril or perils specifically covered in the policy.

All-Commodity Rate – Usually a carload/truckload rate applicable to multiple shipments which move at one time in one vehicle from the consignor to one consignee; also as "freight-all-kinds" or FAK rates. An all-commodity rate is established based on actual transportation cost rather than "Value of service".

Allowance – Deduction from the weight or value of goods, allowed if a carrier fails to provide necessary equipment and that equipment is furnished by the shipper.

Alongside – Point of delivery beside a vessel; statement designating where the title to goods passes from party to another.

Alternate Routing – Routing that is less desirable than the normal but results in identical terms.

American Society of Traffic & Transportation (AT&T) – Examining and certifying organization which aims for professionalism in the traffic and transportation field.

American Bureau of Shipping – Organization for classification of vessels, control of construction specifications and examination of seaworthiness.

American Trucking Association (ATA) – National federation of the U.S. trucking industry comprised of 51 state trucking associations (including D.C.) and including independent conferences, each representing a special class/type of trucking operation.

American Warehouse-Men’s Association (AWA) – Voluntary organization of warehouse-men established to assure high standards in the industry.

American Waterway Operators – A domestic water-carrier industry association representing barge operation on the inland waterways.

Arbitrar – 1) Charge in addition to regular freight charge to compensate for unusual local conditions; 2) Fixed amount accepted by a carrier when dividing joint rates.

Arrival Notice – Notice the carrier sends to the consignee when a shipment has arrived.

As Customary – In a contract, this refers to the usual manner of performing a service without a time period specified.

As/Is – Term indicating that goods offered are without warranty/guarantee, purchase has no recourse on vendor for quality of the merchandise.

Association of American Railroads – A railroad industry association that represents the U.S. railroads.

Athwartship – A direction across the beam of a vessel.

Audit Trail – 1) Path generated by a fully processed business transaction includes original entry, transaction listing, file posting and report; 2) Management controls that document acceptance, handling and movement of materials through a warehouse; 3) Verifying summary account balances by analysis/inspection of underlying source documents and transaction records.

Authority – Operating rights granted by a motor carrier by the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Authorized Carrier – Person/company authorized by the Interstate Commerce Commission to engage in the transportation of property as a common or contract carrier.

Axle Ratings – Rear axles on a truck generally carry three ratings; carrying capacity rates at ground (gaw rating); total weight the axle is capable of carrying/pulling in service, gross combined weight (gcw rating); the maximum horsepower limit the axle is capable of carrying in normal service (engine size rating).

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Backhaul – 1) Return transportation movement, usually at less revenue than the original move (headhaul); 2) movement in the direction of lighter traffic flow when traffic is generally heavier in the opposite direction; 3) to move a shipment back over part of a route already traveled.

Bank Draft – Bill of exchange drawn by one bank to another.

Barge – The cargo-carrying vehicle used primarily by inland water carriers. The basic barges have open tops, but there are covered barges for both dry and liquid cargoes.

Barrel – Container of cylindrical shape made of wood, aluminum or steel which is longer than it is wide and has ends with equal diameters.

Barter – To exchange goods or services without the use of money.

Basing Point – Geographic point to which transportation rates are set so that rates to adjacent points can be constructed by adding to/deducting from the basing point rate.

Baud Rate – Number of bits per second a computer is capable of sending/receiving, varies from 300 (teletypewriter) to 9600.

Bay – Area in a warehouse outlined by markings on columns or posts or floor to show specific boundaries; e.g., a 20-foot square.

Beam – Greatest width of a ship’s structure.

Benefit-Cost Ratio – An analytical tool used in public planning; a ratio of total measurable benefits divided by the initial capital cost.

Bill of Lading (B/L) – Principal transportation document by which a carrier acknowledges receipt of freight, describes the freight and sets forth a contract of carriage. Terms and conditions, responsibilities and liabilities vary with manner and place of use. Bills of lading may be negotiable or non-negotiable. Contents of the bill of lading were outlined originally in 1917. Every bill of lading must contain at least the following: 1) date of issue, 2) name of cosigner, 3) place of original consignment, 4) place of delivery, 5) statement of whether goods are to be delivered to a specific person, 6) description of goods/packages containing them, 7) signature of carrier. There are many kinds of bills of lading: Uniform Straight Bill of Lading, Short Form Uniform Straight Bill of Lading, Order-Notify Bill of Lading, Ocean-Marine Bill of Lading, Air Bill of Lading, Express Bill of Lading, etc.

Blanket Rate – A rate that does not increase according to the distance the commodity is shipped.

Bogie – 1) An assembly of two or more axles; 2) removable set of rear axles and wheels used to support a van container.

Bolster – A device so fitted on a chassis or railcar so as to hold and secure the container.

Bona Fide – Latin phrase meaning "in good faith," also used to mean real or true.

Bond – 1) Obligation made binding by payment of a fee, which is lost if the contract is violated; 2) a binding agreement.

Bonded Warehouse – Warehouse approved by the Treasury Department and under bond/guarantee for observance of revenue laws; used for storing goods until duty or goods are released in some other proper manner.

Bottom Side-Rails – Structural members located on the longitudinal sides of the base of the container.

Box – 1) Slang term for trailer or container for ocean carriers; 2) slang term used for truck transmission.

Boxcar – An enclosed railcar typically 40 to 50 feet long; used for packaged freight and some bulk commodities.

Bracing – Securing a shipment inside a carrier’s vehicle to prevent damage.

Branch Line – Railroad line providing train service to one or more stations beyond a junction with the main line or another branch in the line.

Breakbulk – 1) To unload, sort and reload some/all of the contents of a vehicle in transit; 2) to reduce a large shipment of a single commodity to many small shipments that are then dispersed to various buyers.

Bridge Formula – Formula used to determine maximum gross weight that can be carried on any given arrangement of consecutive axles.

Broker – 1) Agent who arranges interstate movement of goods by other carrier; 2) arranger of except loads for owner-operators and/or carriers; 3) one who arranges the buying/selling of goods for a commission; 4) person who leases owned equipment to a carrier; 5) solicitor of insurance who places orders for coverage with companies designated by the insured or with companies of his choosing.

Bulk Carrier – Vessel engaged in carriage of bulk commodities like petroleum, grain, or ore, which are not packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed.

Bulkhead – Upright wall in trailer or rail car that separates and stabilizes a load; 2) cargo restraining partition in a vehicle or vessel.

Bull Rings – Cargo securing devices mounted in the floor of containers which pr9ovide for the lashing and securing of cargo.

Business Statistics – The physical movement of goods from supply points to final sale to customers and the associated transfer and holding of such goods at various intermediate storage points, accomplished in such a manner as to contribute to the explicit goals of the organization.

Buyers Right to Route – When a seller does not pay for freight charges, the purchaser has the right to designate the route for shipment; seller is responsible for following the buyer’s instructions. Complete routing is permitted for rail shipments, but only for the first carrier in motor shipments.

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C & F (Cost and Freight) – Term used in ocean transportation meaning the price states includes cost of goods and transportation charges to point of destination; insurance is normally not included.

CBD (Terms of Sale) – Cash before delivery; seller assumes no risk and extends no credit because he is paid before shipment.

CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) – Basis for quotation by seller that indicates seller will pay insurance and freight charges to destination only.

Capacity Plate – Plate affixed to a forklift truck indicating maximum weight, which can be raised/moved by that equipment.

Capstain – Mechanical device for moving/raising heavy weights, used at docks in mooring vessels at rail terminals to move dead engines.

Captain’s Protest – Declaration by master of ship on arrival in port to accidents/damage to ship/cargo during voyage, designed to relieve ship owner of liability.

Cargo – Freight transported in a vehicle.

Carload (C/L or CL) – 1) Quantity of freight required to fill a rail car; 2) specified quantity necessary to qualify a shipment for a carload rate.

Carriage – That part of transportation service that is represented by actual movement of goods to a point of destination, after having been loaded but before being unloaded.

Carrier – Individual, partnership or corporation engaged in the business of transporting goods or passengers, in most cases for a fee.

Carrier’s Liability – Liability begins when goods are delivered at the proper place, and ends when the goods have been delivered to the consignee or when the carriers duty has been discharged according to terms of the freight contract.

Cartage – 1 Charges for pickup/delivery of goods; 2) Act of moving goods (usually short distances).

Cartel – Group of industrial companies that agree to regulate output, divide markets and set prices at which to sell products; an illegal practice in the United States since it violates antitrust laws.

Case Mark – Information shown on the outside of shipping carton, including destination and contents.

Cash in Advance (CIA) – Method of paying for goods where buyer pays seller before shipment of goods, employed when goods are built-to-order.

Caveat Emptor – Latin term meaning "let the buyer beware." Common law imposes on the buyer the duty of examining a purchase; there is no recourse against seller because of the defects.

Cellular Vessel – Ship constructed for transportation of containers stacked on top of each other in vertical, guide shafts, no general freight is carried.

Certificate of Insurance – Issued (usually on form E or Form H) by an office of an insurance company to state agency or other party, stating the fact that the party named has insurance coverage in amounts/types; not a binding agreement.

Certificate of Manufacture – Documents with letters of credit when drafts are paid/negotiated on presentation of a certificate stating that goods have been completed and are being held for shipment.

Certificate of Origin – Indicates country producing goods listed on it, required by customs officials; used to secure "most favored Nation" treatment in foreign markets and for correct assessment of import duties.

Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity – The grant of operating authority that is given to common carriers. A carrier must prove that a public need exists and that the carrier is fit, willing and able to provide the needed service. The certificate may specify the commodities to be hauled, the area to be served and the routes to be used.

Certificate of Registry – Document issued by maritime authorities indicating legal restrictions of a ship.

Certificated Carrier – a for-hire carrier that is subject to economic regulation and that requires an operating certification to provide services.

Chassis – A trailer-type device with wheels constructed to accommodate containers enabling the load to be moved over-the-road.

Chemtrec – Chemical Transportation Emergency Center; organization available on a 24-hour basis to provide emergency response information to anyone involved in hazardous chemical accidents.

Chock – A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent it from rolling about or moving sideways.

Claim – 1) Demand on transportation company for payment due to loss/damage of freight that occurred during transit; 2) demand on transportation company for refund on overcharge; 3) demand by individual/ corporation to recover for loss under policy of insurance.

Class Rate – Rate for commodities grouped according to similar shipping characteristics, applies to numbered/lettered groups/classes of articles contained in the territorial rating column in classification schedules.

Clayton Act – An antitrust act of Congress making price discrimination unlawful; the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the enforcement agency.

Clearance – 1) Customhouse certificate that ship is free to leave, all legal requirements having been met; 3) space or measurements above and beside trucks/highways.

Cleat – Strip of wood/metal used to add additional strength, prevent warping, keep in position.

Coastal Carriers – Water carriers that produce service along coasts serving ports on the Atlantic or Pacific oceans or on the Gulf of Mexico.

Co-Load – Two shipments from different terminals combined to ship as one load.

COD Terms of Sales – Cash on delivery; buyer pays carrier the price of goods before they are delivered; seller assumes risk of purchaser refusing to accept goods.

Collapsible Container – So fitted that the main parts are hinged or removable for the purpose of reducing its effective volume for transporting in an empty condition, thus making more efficient use of empty space.

Collect Shipment – Shipment where collection of freight charges/advances is made by delivering carrier from the consignee/receiver.

Commerce – Buying, selling, trading of goods and services.

Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution – "…Congress shall have the power…to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states…" that gives authority to regulate interstate commerce.

Commercial Invoice – Itemized list issued by seller/exporter in foreign trade showing quantity, quality, description of goods, price, terms of sales, marks/numbers, weight, full name/address of purchaser and date.

Commission – Fee charges by brokers as compensation for their services in purchasing or selling commodities/securities at the direction of the customer.

Committee of American Steamship Lines – An industry association representing subsidized U.S. flag steamship firms.

Commodity Rate – A rate for a specific commodity and its origin/destination.

Common Carrier – Any carrier engages in the interstate transportation of persons/property on a regular schedule at published rate sand whose services are available to the general public on a fore-hire basis; regulated by the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Common Carrier Duties – Common carriers are required to serve, deliver, charge reasonable rates, and not discriminate.

Common Cost – A cost that cannot be directly assignable to particular segments of the business but that is incurred for the business as a whole.

Concealed Damage – When product in an apparently undamaged container is damaged; freight claims difficult to settle in such cases because neither shipper nor carrier wants responsibility.

Concurrence – Document signed by carrier and filed with the Interstate Commission that verifies carrier participates in rates published in a tariff by a given agent.

Conference – 1) Independent/autonomous organization within the American Trucking Association, Inc. (ATA) that represents a certain class/type of motor carrier; 2) association of ship owners servicing the same trade route who operate under collective conditions of carriage and tariff rates.

Consign – 1) Deliver formally to another; 2) send goods to purchaser, factor or agent to sell.

Consignee – Person who receives goods shipped from one owner (consignor).

Consignor – Person or firm that ships articles to customers (consignees).

Consolidation – Practice of combining less-than-carload (LCL) or less-than-truckload (ITL) shipments to make carload/truckload movements.

Container-Freight Station (CFS) – Associated with consolidation depots where parcels of cargo are grouped and loaded into containers.

Container Load – A loading that does not utilize the full volumetric capacity of a container nor the maximum payload by weight and will permit additional part loads.

Container Pool – An agreement between transport carriers and/or container leasing companies that will permit additional part loads.

Container Ship – Vessel with specially designed cellular structure for transportation of containers.

Containerization – 1) Practice/technique of using box-like device to store, protect and handle a number of packages as a unit of transit; 2) shipping system based on large cargo-carrying containers (usually 20 or 40 feet in length) that can be interchanged between trucks, trains and ships without rehandling contents.

Contract Carrier – Carrier engaged in interstate transportation of persons/property by motor vehicle on a for-hire basis but under continuing contract with one or a limited number of customers to meet specific needs of each customer, must receive authorization in the form of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Cooperative Associations – Groups of firms or individuals having common interests; agricultural cooperative associations may haul up to 25% of their total interstate tonnage in non-farm non-member goods in movements incidentals and necessary to their primary business.

Coordinated Transportation – Two or more carriers of different modes transporting a shipment.

Cordage – products of rope, twine and string industry.

Cost and Freight (C&F) – Ocean transportation term meaning price stated includes cost of goods and transportation charges to point of destination; insurance normally is not included.

Cube – Slang term for volume capacity of a van trailer.

Cube Out – When a container has reached its volumetric capacity before reaching the permitted weight limit.

Cube Rate – Rate based on space instead of weight and used for light bulky loads.

Cubic Capacity – Carrying capacity of a container according to measurement in cubic feet.

Customs Brokers – Specialists in customs procedures, who act for importers for a fee, licensed by Treasury Department.

Customs Tariff – Schedule of charges assessed by the government on imported/exported goods.

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DOT – Department of Transportation.

Damage Claim (Freight) – Demand upon carrier reimbursement for physical injury to shipment or because shipment was not delivered within reasonable time.

Data Plate – Sign attached to container giving details of weight/dimensions/capacity.

De Facto – Latin phrase meaning "in fact," used to describe situation that exists regardless of any other condition.

Deadhead – One leg of a move with either a tractor alone or a tractor pulling an empty container.

Dead Weight Tonnage (DWT) – Estimated number of tons of cargo a vessel can carry when loaded to maximum depth, obtained by subtracting displacement "light" and "loaded" tonnage and expressed in long term (2,240 lbs.) or metric tons (1,000 kgs.); serve as basis for rates when vessels operate on time charges.

Declared Value – 1) Assumed value of shipment unless shipper declares higher amount, e.g., air freight declare value on most shipments has been 50 cents a pound, or $50, whichever is greater; 2) process of stating lower value on a shipment to obtain a lower rate.

Deferred Rebate – Return of portion of freight charges by carrier/conference to shipper in exchange for shipper giving all/most shipments to carrier over a specific period of time (usually six months), payment of rebate is deferred for similar period; system is illegal in U.S. foreign commerce but is generally accepted in ocean trade between foreign countries.

Delta Nu Alpha – Transportation fraternity.

Demurrage – Penalty for exceeding free time (generally 48 hours) allowed for loading/unloading under terms of railroad/ocean tariffs; detention is used to mean the same thing for motor carriers.

Density – Weight per cubic feet or kg per cubic meter of space occupied by the article/dimensional weight.

Deregulation – Revisions or complete elimination of economic regulations controlling transportation. The Motor Carrier Act of 1980 and the Staggers Rail Act of 1980 revised the economic controls over motor carriers and railroads, while the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 will eventually eliminate economic control over air carriers.

Derived Demand – The demand for transportation of a product is derived for the demand for the product at some location.

Desiccant – Material that absorbs moisture by physical/chemical action, e.g., calcium chloride; desicants are included in packages to keep contents from suffering moisture damage.

Discrimination – Differences in rates not justified by costs; e.g., two shipments move under same circumstances but for different charges.

Devanning – The discharging of cargo from a container.

Differential – 1) Amount added to/deducted from base rate to make rate to/from some other point or via another route; 2) part of power train of vehicle containing gears that convert rotation of drive shaft to turn wheels/axles.

Dispatcher – Person who schedules/controls truck pickups, deliveries, e.g., assigns drivers/vehicles to jobs/records departures/return times, investigates over-due vehicles, issues equipment, establishes routes.

Displacement Tonnage – Weight in long tons of water displacement by capacity of vessel and its cargo.

Distance Rate Systems – Based on tapering rate principle in which rates increase with distance, but not as fast as distance itself, distances rates are often established for key ports.

Distribution Warehouse – A warehouse that stores finished goods and from which customer orders are assembled.

Diversion – Change made in consignee, destination, route of shipment while in transit.

Dock – 1) Area at warehouse/manufacturing plant where goods are loaded, unloaded and sorted; 2) slip/waterway between two protections to receive vessels while taking on/discharging cargo/passengers.

Dock Receipt – A steamship company form, evidencing receipt of the goods at a pier. Copies of this form are made available to shippers as a means of expediting handling at piers. The dock receipt controls the ownership of the goods until the ocean bill of lading is issued.

Door-to-Door – Through transportation of a container/trailer and it contents from consignor’s loading facility to consignee’s unloading facility.

Double Stack – Railcar movement of containers stacked two high.

Draft (Bill of Exchange) – Terms used interchangeably, bill of exchange is instrument drawn by one person ordering second person to pay definite sum of money to third person on sight (sight draft) or at definite future time (time draft).

Draft (Vessel) – Depth of water necessary to float vessel.

Drawback – Refund of customs duties paid on material imported and later exported.

Drayage – Transportation of freight by truck, primarily in local cartage.

Drop Shipment – Shipment sent directly from manufacturer to retailer/industrial customer, even though ordered through wholesaler, who takes title to goods and usual wholesale discount.

Dual Operation – A motor carrier that has both common and contract carrier operating authority.

Dual-Rate System – An international water carrier pricing system where a shipper signing an exclusive-use agreement with the conference pays a lower rate (10% to15%) than non-signing shippers for an identical shipment.

Dunnage – Cardboard, lumber or other filler material used to stabilize shipment, does not include packaging.

Duty – Tax levied by government on import/export consumption goods.

DWT – (Deadweight Tonnage) – Estimated number of tons of cargo a vessel can carry when loaded to maximum depth.

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ETA – Estimated time of arrival

ETD – Estimated time of departure

EDI – Electronic Data Interchangeable

Embargo – 1) When freight is not accepted at certain points or via certain routes for particular destinations because of some emergency/problem at destination; 2) detention of vessels in port by order of government, usually issued in time of war/hostilities.

Equipment Interchange Receipt (EIR) – Form used by parties delivering/receiving containers/container equipment, used for equipment control and damage purposes.

Estoppel – Legal document used in court of law to establish liability.

Etiologic Agents – As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR, viable microorganisms or their toxins, which cause/may cause human disease.

European Economic Community (EEC) – Common Market Nations of Europe.

Ex – Prefix meaning "out of" or "from", used in conjunction with noun of location, means all charges for transportation, and risks of loss/damage are chargeable to account of buyer when goods are delivered to carrier at "ex" location.

Exception Rate – A deviation from the class rate; changes are made to the classification.

Exclusive Use – Carrier vehicles that are assigned to a specific shipper for its exclusive use.

Exempt Carrier – Motor carrier engaged in for-hire transportation of commodities, exempt from economic regulations by ICC under provision Interstate Commerce Act, generally agricultural commodities or seafood.

Expediting – Moving shipments through regular channels at accelerated rate, an example of dispatching less-than-truckload (LTL) quantities on a single truck for quick delivery.

Explosives – As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR any chemical compound mixture or device, the primary or common purpose for which is to function by explosion, within the explosives definition, there are further divisions into Class A, B, C and Blasting Agents.

Export Declaration – A document required by the Department of Commerce that provides information as to the nature, value, etc., of export activity.

Export Letter-of-Credit – When importer has arranged with bank for letter-of-credit financing of purchases, he applies for issuance of individual letters of credit to cover purchase contracts as made.

Export License – Certificate granting holder permission to export goods.

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FAK – Freight All Kind.

FCL – Full Container Load. The maximum permissible weight for the value of the cargo carried in a container.

FDA – Food and Drug Administration.

FIFO – First In, First Out; Warehousing term meaning first items stored are the first used.

FOB – Free on board.

Factor – Agent appointed to sell goods on commission, also known as a commission merchant.

Fair Market Value – Sum that sale of article would bring under ordinary market conditions.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) – Division of U.S. Department of Transportation in charge of nation’s highway system that administers federal aid for highway construction, develops safety standards/programs and has jurisdiction over safety of commercial motor carriers engaged in interstate/foreign commerce.

Federal Maritime Commission – A regulatory agency that controls services, practices and agreements of international water common carriers and noncontiguous domestic water carriers.

Federal Register – Government publication that prints rules/regulations of federal agencies on a daily basis; rules and regulations must be published to become legal in most cases.

Feeder – In intermodal context, a pickup/delivery vehicle/ship.

Feeder Service – Coastal movements of loaded/empty containers on board smaller container vessels which coordinate with a "mother ship" for the ocean voyage.

Filing of Tariffs – Requirements that tariff/supplements/reissues/other schedules be in the hands of the regulation body (ICC for example) at specified time prior to effective date.

Fiscal Year – Annual period established for accounting purposes in business or government, may start at any time in calendar year.

Flag-of-Convenience – A ship owner registers a ship in a nation that offers conveniences in the area of taxes, manning, and safety requirements; Liberia and Panama are two nations known for flags of convenience.

Flammable Liquid – As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR, any liquid having a flash point below 100 degrees F except liquids which meet definition of compressed gas or that are part of a mixture where other components with flash points above 100 degrees F make up at least 99% of the mixture.

Flammable Solid – As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR, any solid material other than an explosive, which under conditions incidental to transportation is liable to cause fires through friction, retained heat from manufacturing processing or which can be ignited readily.

Flash Point – Minimum temperature at which substance gives off flammable vapors which will ignite when they come in contact with spark or flame.

Flash Vessels – Feeder LASH vessels, which are shallow-draft vessels suitable to carry 8 to 15 LASH barges at a time, towed by seagoing vessels.

Flatbed – Trailer with level bed and no sides or tops.

Flat-Rack Container – A container with no sides and frame members at the front and rear of the container. Container can be loaded from the sides and top.

Floor Load Rating – Weight that can be safety supported by floor expression in pounds per square foot.

FOB Destination – Freight cost paid to point of destination, title transfers at destination.

FOB Factory – Title to goods and transportation responsibility transfers from seller to factory.

FOB Vessel – Title/transportation costs transfer after goods are delivered on vessel, all export taxes/costs involved in overseas shipments are assessed to buyer.

Footprint – Slang term for amount of tire tread on the ground.

For-Hire Carrier – A carrier that provides transportation service to the public on a fee basis.

Force Majeure – Condition in contract that relieves either party from obligation where major unforeseen events prevent compliance with provisions of agreement.

Fore & Aft – The direction on a vessel parallel to the centerline.

Foreign Trade Zones – Goods subject to duty may be brought into such zones duty-free for transshipment/storage/minor manipulating/sorting; duty must be paid when/if goods are brought from zone into any part of United States.

Forklift – Freight/materials handling vehicle used in loading/unloading heavy freight.

Forwarding Agent – Firm specializing in shipping goods abroad, payments made for insurance and other expense are charged to foreign buyer.

Free Along Side (FAS) – Selling term in international trade when selling party quotes price including delivery of good along side overseas vessel at exporting port.

Free Time – The amount of time allowed by a carrier for the loading or unloading of freight at the expiration of which demurrage or detention charges will accrue.

Freight Bill – The carrier’s invoice for transportation charges applicable to a freight shipment.

Freight Forwarder – 1) Individual/company that accepts less-than-truckload (LTL) shipments and consolidates them into truckload lots on for-hire basis for shippers; 2) agent who helps expedite shipments by preparing necessary documents/making other arrangements for moving of freight; 3) designated as a common carrier under the Interstate Commerce Act.

Freight In Bond – Goods shipped under control/ownership of Government until duty is paid.

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GBI – Government bill of lading.

Gage (Gauge o Track) – Distance between heads of rails, measured at right angles at point 5/8-inch below top of rail, standard gage is 4 ft. 8-1/2 in., narrower gage is frequently employed by construction/scenic areas.

Gateway – Point at which freight is interchanged/interlined between carriers or at which carrier joints two operating authorities provision of through service.

General Average – Ancient principle in Maritime law in which all parties in a sea voyage share losses resulting from a voluntary and successful sacrifice of part of the ship or cargo in order to save the entire voyage from peril or extraordinary expense.

General Cargo – Term applying to ship’s loading comprising a variety of goods/articles and not confined to a single commodity.

Gondola – A railcar with a flat platform and sides 3 to 5 feet high; used for top loading of items that are long and heavy.

Gooseneck – The front rails of the chassis that rise above the plane of the chassis and engage in the tunnel of a container.

Grandfather Clause – 1) Allows firm that has been doing business in an area to continue, despite new regulations that might ordinarily preclude operation; 2) used by Interstate Commerce Commission to grant authority to carrier to operate over routes where it or a predecessor was in bona fide operation on June 1, 1935.

Gross Weight – The combined weight of a container, its payload and any other loose internal fittings.

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Hazardous Materials – Substance/material determined and designated by Secretary of Transportation to be capable of posing unreasonable risk to health, safety and property when transported in commerce.

High Cube – Any container that exceeds 8’6" (102 inches) in height.

Highway Carriers – Divided into following classes; regular route (line haul), long-haul/transcontinental carriers, regular route (line haul), short-haul carriers, irregular route carriers, specific commodity carriers, intrastate carriers, interstate carriers and local cartage/pickup/distribution carriers.

Hundredweight (CWT) – The pricing unit used in transportation; a hundredweight is equal to 100 pounds.

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IBID – Latin term meaning "in the same place."

I. S. O. – Organization for International Standards.

In Bond – Storage of goods in custody of government/bonded warehouse or carrier from which goods can be taken only upon payment of taxes/duties to appropriate government agency.

In Transit – Load proceeding along route between home terminal and destination point.

Incentive Rate – A rate designed to induce the shipper to ship heavier volumes per shipment.

Indemnify – To compensate/repay for loss sustained.

Inflatable Dunnage – Flexible bags usually made from vinyl material, which can be inflated within the void spaces of a container/trailer to prevent movement of cargo.

Inland Carrier – A Transportation line which hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.

Insurance – Contractual relationship which exists when one party, for a consideration, agrees to reimburse another for loss caused by designated contingencies; first party is insurer, second is insured, contract is insurance policy, consideration is premium property in question is risk, contingency in question is hazard/peril.

Integrated Tow Barge – A Series of barges that are connects together to operate as one unit.

Inter Alia – Latin phrase meaning "among other things."

Interchange – Process of passing freight from one carrier to another between lines.

Intercoastal Carriers – Water carriers that transport freight between the east coast and west-coast ports usually by way of the Panama Canal.

Interline Freight – Freight moving from origin to destination over lines of two or more transportation lines.

Intermodal Transportation – Using more than one mode to deliver shipment, e.g., trailer on flatcar (TOFC) or container on floater (COFC).

Internal Water Carriers – Water carriers that operate over the internal navigable rivers, such as the Mississippi, Ohio and Missouri.

Interstate – Literally means between states, applies to transportation of goods/persons from point in one state to point in another, between point in same state but passing within/through another state enroute, between points in United States and foreign countries.

Interstate Commerce – When all business between buyers/sellers is carried on within state.

Irregular-Route Carrier – A motor carrier that is permitted to provide service using any route.

Irritating Material – As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR, liquid or solid substance which upon contact with fire or when exposed to air gives off dangerous or intensely irritating fumes; does not include any material classed as Poison A.

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Joint Rate – Agreed upon by two or more carriers, published in a single tariff and applying between point on line of another, may include one or more immediate carriers in route.

Just-In-Time – Umbrella term including elements of both Kanban and MRP II systems; used in contrast to older just-in-case practices of large inventories/stockpiles.

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Kanban – Japanese word, translated "visible record," for manufacturing control system in which supplies deliver needed parts to assembly line "just in time" for use, e.g., parts not stocked; affects purchasing materials management, inventory control and production management. Paper cards are used for record keeping/control. Pronounced "conbon", term is primarily associated with Toyota, but has become a generic term in the USA.

Kickback – Rebate, usually given to person who is in position to purchase/order transportation service for his/her firm.

Knot – Unit of speed – Nautical mile per hour.

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LCL – Less than carload; term refers to load weighing less than amount necessary to apply carload rate charged by railroads for transportation.

LTL – Less than truckload; term refers to less than quantity of freight required to apply truckload (TL) rate charged by motor carriers for transportation. A shipment weighing less than the minimum weight needed to use the lower truckload rate.

Land Bridge – Intermodal system of getting international cargo across intervening continent from one seacoast to another by special through trains.

Landed Cost – Total expense of receiving goods/merchandise at place of retail sale including retail purchase price and transportation charges.

Landing Gear – Device that supports at end of semi-trailer when not attached to tractor.

LASH – Lighter-Aboard-Ship vessels that carry barges. They are equipped with an overhead crane capable of lifting LASH barges and stowing them into cellular slots in athwartship position.

Last In, First Out (LIFO) – Accounting method of valuing inventory that assumes latest goods purchased are first goods used during accounting period, opposite of first in, first out (FIFO).

Lay Time – Period of time in which ship is loaded/unloaded and for which no demurrage is charged.

Lazaretto – Quarantined area for fumigating goods that might be carrying insects/dangerous germs.

Lead Time – the total elapse time between order placement and order receipt. Includes time required for order transmittal, order processing, and preparation, as well as time in transit.

Legal Weight – Weight of goods and interior packing, but not the container’s weight (term used commonly in foreign trade). A maximum weight limitation for a total highway unit; this maximum is established by highway authorities, which, if exceeded, may subject carriers to fines or impounding of vehicles.

Lessee – Party, firm or corporation with legal possession/control of vehicle (with/without) driver or other equipment owned by another under terms of lease agreement.

Lessor – Party, firm or corporation granting legal use of vehicle (with/without) driver or other equipment to another party under the terms of lease agreement.

Letter of Credit (L/C) – Method of payment for good in which buyer establishes credit with local bank, clearly describing goods to be purchased, price, documentation required and time limit for completion of transaction; upon receipt of documentation, bank is either paid by buyer or takes title to goods and transfers funds to seller, may be revocable or irrevocable.

Lift-On/Lift-Off (LO/LO) – Carriage of containers on decks or on flat racks of water vessels.

Lighter – Flat-bottomed boat, usually moved by tugs but can also be steam powered, used to transfer freight between cars, piers and vessels.

Linehaul – Movement of freight between cities, usually more than 1,000 miles, not including pickup and delivery service.

Liner – Ocean vessel engaged in carriage of general cargo (including passengers) along definite route on fixed schedule.

Liner Service – International Water carriers that ply fixed routes on published schedules.

Live Axle – Axle driven by engine as compared to dead axle that only follows as pulled.

Lloyd’s Register – Yearly document issued by Lloyd’s containing tonnage, age, build, character and condition of registered ships.

Load Displacement – Vessel’s load capacity according to structure displacement.

Loading Line – Guide on ship indicating to what depth it has sunk with lading, serves as safety factor.

Long Ton – Equivalent to 2,240 pounds or 20 long hundred weights, also called gross ton.

Longshoreman – Person employed on wharves of port to load/unload vessels.

Loss and Damage (L&D) – Usually applied when loss/damage is discovered when package is delivered.

Luffing – Angular movement of crane in vertical plane.

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Major Carrier – A for-hire certificated air carrier with annual operating revenues of $1 billion or more; carrier usually operates between major traffic centers.

Mandamus – Writ issued y court requiring specific actions to be taken.

Manifest – 1) Document signed by master of ship setting forth description/destination of goods shipped; 2) listing of shipments in load by pro number/consignee/destination/weight.

Marine Registry – Listing vessel under name of nation whose flag it flies; ship owners often register under most favorable/lenient flags.

Maritime Administration – AN U.S. Government agency that promotes the merchant marine, determines ocean ship routes and services equipment, and awards maritime subsidies.

Maximum Cube – A level of cube utilization that closely approximates the stated cubic capacity of a container.

Maximum Gross Weight – Weight of container and its payload.

Metric Ton – Measure of weight equal to 1,000 kilograms, or about 2,200 pounds, symbols is it, also called tonne.

Microbridge – Provides for intermodal transport of freight from inland city to seaport with through movement transfer of container freight onto overseas ship.

Mortgage – Conveyance of property, real or personal, to person called mortgagee to secure performance of some act such as payment of money by mortgagor becomes void upon performance of act.

Motor Carrier Act of 1935 – Act of Congress effective October 1 1935; Part II of the Interstate Commerce Act brought motor common and contract carriers under jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) incorporated into Revised Interstate Commerce Act of 1978.

Motor Common Carrier – Entity holding itself out to general public to provide motor vehicle transportation for compensation over regular or irregular routes, or both.

MRP II –Manufacturing Resource Planning-System of manufacturing controls using computers; as in Kanban systems affect purchasing materials management, inventory control and production management – as well as peripheral manufacturing activities (older meaning of MRP is "materials requirements planning," Roman numeral II was added to flag change.

Mule – 1) Small vehicle used for moving two-axle dollies; 2) yard tractor or hostler.

Multimodal – Using more than one mode of transportation to move load of goods, e.g., truck, train, ship, usually for imported/exported goods.

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NOI – Not otherwise indexed.

Negligence – Failure to exercise degree of care demanded by law.

Nesting – Fitting one article of cargo inside the other to economize space.

Net – Figures/totals remaining after all charges/deductions have been subtracted.

Net Tare Weight – The weight of an empty container plus any fixtures permanently attached.

Net Ton – 2,000 pounds.

Net Ton-Mile – Movement of ton of freight one mile.

Net Tonnage (Vessel) – Gross tonnage minus deductions for space occupied by crew quarters, machinery for navigation, engine room and fuel.

Net Weight – 1) Weight of article without packing and container; 2) weight of entire contents of vehicle.

Node – A fixed point in a firm’s logistics system where goods come to rest; plants, warehouses, supply sources, market destination.

Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) – Cargo consolidator of small shipments in ocean trade, generally soliciting business and arranging for/performing containerization functions at the port.

Nose – Front of the container.

Notice of Arrival – On arrival of freight at destination, notice is promptly sent to consignee showing number of packages, description of articles, route, rate, weight, car initial and number, amount of freight charges’ station where delivery will be made and time allowed for removal before demurrage/storage charges accrue.

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OS & D – Over, Short and Damaged; report issued at warehouse when goods are damaged, used to file claim with carrier.

OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

Ocean Bill of Lading – Issued by ocean carrier for marine transport of goods; provides terms of carrier between shipper/forwarder and carrier between stated points and for specific charge.

Off Route Points – Points located off regular route highways of line-haul carriers, generally served only on irregular schedules.

On the Berth – Term denoting that ship is ready to load/discharge cargo.

Open Account (O/A) – Manner of supplying credit by charging goods/services to purchaser’s account, payment for which is made at future date.

Open-End Lease – Lessee guarantee lessor will realize minimum of value from sale of equipment at end of lease period.

Open Insurance Policy – Form of insurance covering shipments for specified time or stated value and not limited to single shipment, most often used in marine insurance.

Operating Authority – Routes, points and types of traffic that may be served by carrier, authority is granted by state of federal regulatory agencies.

Operating Ratio – Comparison of carrier’s operating expenses with gross receipts; income divided by expenses.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) – Reading of data scanning location or shape of data on document.

Optimum Cube – The highest level of cube utilization that can be achieved when loading cargo into an ocean-freight container.

Order Bill of Lading – Contains four distinguishing features: 1) goods are consigned to order of party named in bill of lading; 2) name and post office address of party to notify on arrival of consignment at destination must always be written on bill; 3) negotiable document most frequently used when shippers wish to collect for value of shipments prior to delivery; 4) printed on yellow paper to make it readily distinguishable.

Ordinary Livestock – Defined in Interstate Commerce Act as "all cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses and mules, except such as are chiefly valuable for breeding, racing, show purposes and other special uses."

Outage – Empty space in container/drum to accommodate natural expansion, density change, etc., due to temperature change.

Overage – Freight in excess over quantity believed to have been shipped, or more than quantity shown on shipping document.

Overheight Cargo – Cargo stowed in an open-top container that projects above the uppermost level of the roof struts.

Over-the-Road – A motor carrier operation that reflects long distance, inter-city moves; the opposite of local operations.

Owner-Operator – Driver who owns and operates his own truck; he may be a common carrier, contract carrier, or exempt carrier; such contractor may lease rig/driver to another carrier.

Owner’s Risk – When owner of goods remains responsible during shipping, relieving carrier of part of risk.

Oxidizing Material – As defined in the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFT any substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate combustion of organic matter.

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Packing List – List showing merchandise packed and all particulars, normally prepared by shipper but not necessarily required by carriers; copy is usually sent to consignee to assist in verifying shipment received.

Pallet – 1) Load board with two decks separated by bearers or single deck supported by bearer constructed for transport/stacking and with overall height reduced to minimum compatible with handling by forklift/pallet trucks; 2) platform used for utilizing loads for storage/shipping, standard pallet is 48x40x5-1/2 inches usually made of wood.

Palletization – System for shipping goods on comparatively lightweight, double-decked wooden platform called pallets; permits shipment of multiple units as one large unit.

Payload – In freight transportation, profitable cargo.

Per – 1) Latin word meaning "by"; 2) means of; 3) according to.

Per Diem – 1) Latin term meaning "by the day"; 2) daily charge by rail carriers for use of railcars by any other rail carriers.

Performance Bond – Bond executed in connection with contract securing performance/fulfillment of terms.

Perishable Freight – Commodities subject to rapid deterioration or decay (fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products, meats, fish) which require special protective services in transit like refrigeration, heating, and ventilation.

Permits – Authority granted by ICC to contract carriers by motor vehicle or water and freight forwarders to operate in interstate commerce.

Physical Distribution – Broad range of activities involving efficient range of activities involving efficient movement of goods from source of raw materials through production to consumer; activities include warehousing, material handling, packaging, order possessing, freight transportation and other activities.

Pier – The structure to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of loading and unloading cargo.

Pier-to-House – A shipment loaded into a container at the pier or terminal then exported strictly to the consignee’s designated area for unloading.

Pier-to-Pier – Containers loaded at port-of-loading and discharged at port-of-destination.

Piggyback – Intermodal transportation system where trailers/containers are carried on railcars; essentially joint carrier movement in which motor carrier performs pickup/delivery operation to rail terminal, as well as delivery operation at terminating railhead.

Pigtail – Slang term used for cable used to transmit electrical power to trailer.

Pilferage – Taking property of others; in transportation, usually consists of breaking into cartons/containers and removing items.

Pilot – Person whose duty is to steer ships, particularly along coasts or into/out of harbor.

Place Utility – A value created in a product by changing its location. Transportation creates place utility.

Plimsoll Mark - Identifying displacement mark (horizontal line painted on outside of ship) as to where a vessel may safely be loaded to, must remain above surface of water. British merchant vessels referred to as plimsoll mark.

Point of Origin – Station at which shipment is received from shipper by transportation line.

Poisons – As defined in Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR, these materials are further divided into two groups based on degree of hazard posed in transportation. Poison A includes gasses or liquids that are dangerous to life if only a small amount is mixed with air. Poison B includes substances, liquid and solid (pastes and semi-solids also) which are known to be toxic to man that they provide a health hazard during transportation. See also Irritating Material.

Pool – A continuous supply of containers at a specific location to facilitate continuous volume loading.

Pooling Agreement – Dividing of revenue/business among two or more carriers in accordance with previous contracts/agreements.

Port – A harbor or haven where ships may anchor, or that side of the vessel on the left hand of a person who stands on board facing the bow (front) of the vessel.

Port Authority – A state or local government that owns, operates or otherwise provides wharf, dock and other terminal investments at ports.

Port Charges – Charges assessed for services performed at ports, including lighterage, pilotage, towage, harbor dues, dockage and wharfage.

Predatory Charges –n Temporary pricing action by one firm to point below variable costs that has effect of removing competing firm from market.

Private Carrier – A carrier that provides transportation service to the firm that owns or leases the vehicles and does not charge a fee. Private motor carriers may haul for a fee for wholly owned subsidiaries.

Pro Forma Invoice – Document used largely for banking purposes, abbreviated invoice sent in advance of shipment, usually to enable buyer to obtain import permit, exchange permit or both.

Pro Number – Any progressive or serial number applied for identification to freight bills, bills of lading, etc.

Product Liability – Liability imposed for damages caused by accident and arising out of goods/products manufactured, sold, handled or distributed by insured or others trading under his name.

Proof of Liability – Copy of waybill signed by consignee at time of delivery as receipt.

Proportional Rate – Lower than normal rate on segment of through movement to encourage traffic or capture competitive traffic, may be percentage of standard rate or flat rate that is lower between given points.

Public Warehouse – Storage place renting space o anyone desiring it; there are five types: 1) ordinary or merchandise; 2) commodity; 3) household goods; 4) cold storage; 5) field or branch; some states regard public warehouses as public utilities and fix their rates.

Purchase Order – Form used by purchaser when placing order for merchandise or supplies.

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Quality Circles – Groups of workers formed to improve quality and productivity, usually task/oriented with voluntary participation.

Quality Control – the management function that attempts to ensure that the goods or services manufactured or purchased meet the product or service specifications.

Quay – Manmade docking area for loading/unloading vessels, docking is parallel allowing loading/ unloading from one side of ship.

Quoin – A wedged-shaped piece of timber used to secure barrels, preventing movement during transit.

Quotas – Many governments have established quotas of limiting imports by class of goods or country of origin, sometimes importing countries require issuance of licenses before American firms may ship to them.

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Radioactive Material – As defined in Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR, any material or combination of materials which spontaneously emits ionizing radiation and has a specific gravity greater than 0.002 microcuries per gram. The regulations include many more specific designations of radioactivity.

Rate – Established shipping charge for movement of goods in interstate transportation price/rate is approved by Interstate Commerce Commission, intrastate by public service commission or similar body.

Rate Basis – Formula of specific factors/elements that control making of rate.

Rate War – When carriers cut rates in an effort to secure tonnage, can occur in all commodities.

Reasonable Rate – A rate that is high enough to cover the carrier’s cost but not too high to enable carrier to realize monopolistic profits.

Re-Insurance – Insurance of all/part of risk by another insurer, previously assumed by an insurance company.

Rebate – Unlawful practice in which carrier returns part of transportation charges to shipper, done to encourage shipper to use the same carrier again.

Reciprocity – 1) An exchange of rights, in motor transportation may involve granting equal rights, vehicles of several states in which reciprocity agreements are in effect; 2) to give performance in buying to vendors who are customers of buying company.

Reefer – Slang term for refrigerated trailer for hauling perishables, sometimes used in reference to other types of transportation equipment, e.g., reefer car referring to railcar with refrigeration equipment.

Register (of Ships) – Vessel must be registered in merchant marine of some country after inspection, rating, measurement, etc.; this register kept by collector of customs, contains names, ownership and other facts relative to vessels.

Regular-Route Carrier – A motor carrier that is authorized to provide service over designated routes.

Relay Terminal – A motor-carrier terminal designed to facilitate the substitution of one driver for another who has driven the maximum hours permitted.

Reliability – A carrier-selection criterion that considers the variation in carrier-transit time; the consistency of the transit time provided.

Repartion (Order) – Redress in form of adjustment/reimbursement on account of unjust/unreasonable charge assessed after situation has been proved to Interstate Commerce Commission.

Replevin – Legal action instituted to recover possessions of property unlawfully taken or detained; this recovery would be accomplished through court action.

Restricted Articles – Commodities that can be handled only under certain specific conditions.

Retardation – A force causing container and cargo to move fore, aft and upward.

Retroactive – Application of law, rule, tariff provision, etc., to time before law/rule became effective.

Risk – 1) Term usually applied to insurance as a measurement of probability of loss; 2) degree to which investor exposes himself to possibility of loss of money.

Rolling – The side to side (athwartship) motion of a vessel.

Rolling Stock – Freight/passenger cars owned by rail carrier, not including motive power equipment; also buses, trucks and trailers owned by motor carriers.

Roll-On/Roll-Off (RO/RO) – Feature in specially constructed vessel permitting vehicles to drive on/off vessel in loading/discharging ports.

Route – 1) Course/direction that shipment moves; 2) to designate course direction shipment shall move; 3) carrier(s) with junction points over which shipment moves.

Routing – 1) Process of determining how shipment will move between origin and destination; routing information includes designation of carrier(s) involved, actual route of carrier and estimated time enroute; 2) right of shipper to determine carriers, routes and points for transfer on FTL and FCL shipments.

Running Gear – Complementary equipment for terminal and over-the-road handling of containers.

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Salvage Loss – In marine insurance, loss sustained by necessary sale of goods at port prior to expected destination because of "perils of the sea;" treated as total loss with amount realized from sale of goods credited on amount payable under policy.

Scale of Rates – Numerous rates adjusted in relation to each other.

Scow – Hollow/flat-bottomed boat used for transporting gravel, sand and similar bulk commodities.

Sea-Bee Vessel – Ocean vessel constructed with heavy-duty submersible hydraulic-lift or elevator system located at the stern of the vessel. The See-Bee system moves barges from one inland coastal water system to another; Sea-Bee barges are larger than LASH barges.

Seal – Device applied to freight car/motor vehicle door fastening which shows that door fastening where it’s applied has not been tampered with between time of application and time of breaking seal.

Seaworthiness – Sufficiency of vessel in materials, construction, equipment, officers and crew for voyage/ service where employed; an implied condition of all policies of marine insurance unless otherwise specifically stipulated.

Self-Insurance – Assumption of risk without insurance coverage through systematic provision of funds to provide for loss which individual/firm may suffer.

Semi – Slang term for semi-trailer, also used loosely in referring to tractor-trailer combination.

Ship Agent – A liner company or tramp ship operator representative who facilitates ship arrival, clearance, loading/unloading, and fee payment while at a specific port.

Ship Broker – A firm that serves as a go-between for the tramp ship owner and the chartering consignor or consignee.

Ship Chandler – One who furnishes everything necessary to equip vessel.

Shipper’s Agent – A firm that acts primarily to match up small shipments, especially single-traffic piggyback loads to permit use of twin-trailer piggyback rates.

Ship’s Papers – Merchant vessel is required to carry these documents: 1) register; 2) log book; 3) charter party, if chartered; 4) muster roll or list of crew; 5) ship’s articles; 6) bill of health; 7) bill of lading or duplicate receipts of cargo from master to shippers; 8) manifest or general statement of cargo; 9) invoices or detailed statements of cost of goods; 10) clearance or permission from authorities to sail; 11) certificate of inspection; 12) passenger list of passengers are carried; 13) bill of sale (ship has been sold by citizens of one country to citizens of another together with consular certificate; 14) officer’s licenses and; 15) license to carry on port trade.

Shipment – 1) Lot of freight tendered to carry by one consignee at one place at one time for delivery to the consignee at one place on one bill of lading; 2) goods/merchandise in one or more containers, pieces or parcels for transportation from one shipper to single destination.

Shipper’s Certificate – Form filled out presented by shipper to outbound carrier at transit point (together with instructions and inbound carrier’s freight bill), asking for reshipping privilege and transit rate on commodity previously brought into transit point.

Shipper’s Export Declaration (SED) – Form required by Treasury Department and completed by shipper showing value, weight, consignee, destination, etc., export of shipments as well as Schedule B identification.

Short Shipment – Piece of freight missing from shipment. Cargo received is less than what is stipulated by documents on hand.

Sight Draft – Sight draft, COD international trade, usually calls for release of bills of lading and all other documents making up commercial to set buyer against cash payments to collecting bank.

Skids – Battens or a series of parallel runners fitted beneath boxes or packages to raise them clear of the floor to permit easy access of forklift blades or other handling equipment.

Sliding Tandem – An assembly rigged on a chassis that may be shifted to adjust axle weights.

Slurry – Dry commodities that are made into a liquid form by the addition of water or other fluids to permit pumping through pipelines.

Spotting – Placing a railcar to be loaded/unloaded.

Spreader – Device for spreading lifting cables on frame to provide balanced lift on four corners of container allowing load to be lifted straight up.

Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) – Numerical code developed by United Nations and adopted by United States airlines as basis for numerical identification of commodities moving in air freight.

Starboard – Right side of ship.

Statutory Notice – Length of time required by law for carriers to give notice of changes in tariffs, rates, rules and regulations – usually thirty day, unless otherwise permitted by authority from Interstate Commerce Commission or other regulatory body.

Steamship Conferences – Collective rate-making bodies for liner water carriers.

Stevedore – Person having charge of loading/unloading of ships.

Stow – To arrange in compact mass, e.g., stow cargo in hold of ship.

Straddle Carrier – Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework.

Straight Bill of Lading – Non-negotiable document provides that shipment is to be delivered direct to party whose name is shown as consignee, carrier does not require its surrender upon delivery except when needed to identify consignee.

Stripping – In truck transportation, emptying truck of cargo and arranging shipments by destination.

Stuffing – Slang term for loading cargo container.

Subrogation – Right of an insurance company to recover amount paid to insured from third party that may have caused loss.

Surcharge – An add-on charge to the applicable charges; motor carriers have a fuel surcharge and railroads can apply a surcharge to any joint rate that does not yield 110 percent of variable cost.

Surety Bond – Contract between principal and responsible third party (surety) which makes surety momentarily responsible for principal’s fulfillment of obligation to obligee (party who is protected).

Systems Concept – A decision-making strategy that emphasizes overall efficiency of the whole rather than the efficiency of the individual parts of the system.

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TOFC – Trailer-on-flatcar, also called piggyback, shipments moving TOFC receive special rates from tariffs providing for that class or tariff.

Tandem – A truck that has two drive-axles or a trailer that has two axles.

Tanktainer – Tank built into standard frame and used to transport liquids.

Tapering Rate – A rate that increases with distances but not in direct proportion to the distance the commodity is shipped.

Tare – Amount of gross weight that can be deducted from packing weight, usually allowance is four pounds per 104 pounds.

Tare Weight – 1) Weight of container and material used for packaging; 2) in transportation terms, weight of car/truck exclusive of contents.

Tariff (Transportation) - Printed price list issued by carrier showing transportation charges.

Temporary Authority – The Interstate Commerce Commission may grant a temporary operating authority as a common carrier for up to 270 days.

Tender – Offer of goods for transportation by shipper or offer of delivery on part of carrier.

Terminal – An assigned area in which containers are prepared to be loaded into a vessel or are stacked immediately after discharge from the vessel; any assigned area for the loading/unloading temporary storage of vehicles, or the interchange of freight during transit.

TEU – Twenty-foot equivalent unit (6.10 m). A standard unit for counting containers of various lengths and for describing the capacities of container ships or terminals. One standard 40-foot, ISOS series 1 container equals 2 TEU’s.

Through Bill of Lading – Covers goods, moving from point of origin to final destination, even though transfers are made to different carriers in transit.

Time Draft – Draft maturing at certain fixed time after presentation/acceptance.

Time Utility – A value created in a product by having the product available at a time desired; transportation and warehousing create time utility.

Title – Document which confers on holder right of ownership/possess/transfer of merchandise specified, e.g., bills of lading and warehouse receipts.

Ton – Long ton, 2,240 pounds; short ton, 2,000 pounds; metric ton, 2,206.6 pounds.

Tonnage – 1) Carrying capacity of ship/vessel; 2) tax/duty paid on such capacity; 3) weight ship will carry expressed in tons.

Tort – Wrong, other than breach of contract, committed upon person/property of another.

Tracing – Determine where a shipment is during the course of a move.

Traffic – Department/division responsible for obtaining most economical commodity classification and method of transporting materials and products; people and/or property carried by transportation companies.

Traffic Management – The management of activities associated with buying and controlling transportation services for a shipper or consignee or both.

Tramp – Vessel that does not operate along definite route on fixed schedule, but calls at any port where cargo is available.

Transit Time – The total time that elapses from pickup to delivery of a shipment.

Transloading – The practice of breaking (transferring) bulk shipments from the vehicle/container of one mode to that of another at one or a series of terminal interchange points. Usually transloading involves transporting a continuous volume of similar products, creating a rolling (in-transit) inventory of the products.

Transship – Term commonly used to denote transfer of goods from one means of transportation to another, rehandling of goods enroute.

Trip Charter – Hiring vessel to haul cargo for special voyage.

Twist Locks – A set of four, twistable bayonet-type, shear keys used as part of a spreader to pick up a container or as part of a chassis to secure containers.

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UCC – Uniform Commercial Code

U.S. Customs Bonded Warehouse – Until import duty (if required) is paid, federal government retains control of goods; imports awaiting collection of duty must be stored at importer’s expense in custody of warehouse willing/able to furnish bond that commodities will not be released until necessary duties are paid.

Ullage – Empty space present when cask/container is not full.

Unit Train – An entire, uninterrupted locomotive-car-and-caboose movement between an origin and destination; rail movement of large tonnages of single-bulk products between two points.

Utilization – The consolidation of a quantity of individual items into one large shipping unit for easier handling; loading one or more large items of cargo onto a single piece of equipment such as a pallet.

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Value Added Tax (VAT) Government imposed taxation on import cargo.

Value-of-Service Pricing
– Pricing according to the value of the product being transported; third degree price of discrimination; demand-oriented pricing, charges what the traffic will bear.

Valuation Actual – Actual value of goods shown on bill of lading by shipper when rate to be applied depends on value.

Vanning – A term sometimes used for stowing cargo in a container.

Vessel – Generally, craft used or intended to be used as means of transportation by water.

Vessel Ton – 100 cubic feet.

Viz – Namely.

Volatility – 1) Ability of liquid to vaporize; 2) Explosivity.

Voyage Charter – Engaging services of ship (cargo) for specified trip from one port to another at established tonnage rate.

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Waiver – 1) Written statement canceling previous claim/right, usually refers to only one person or specific situation; 2) intentionally forfeiting a right

Warehouse – Place for receiving/storing goods and merchandise for-hire warehouseman is bound to use ordinary diligence in preserving goods.

Wastage – Loss of goods due to handling, decay, leakage, shrinkage, etc.

Waybill (WB) - Document containing description of goods that are part of common carrier freight shipment, also shows origin, destination, consignee/consignor and amount charged; copies travel with goods and are retained by carrier for internal record and control, especially during transit; not a transportation contract.

Weight Break – The shipment volume at which the LTL charges equal to TL charges at the minimum weight.

Weigh Station – Permanent station equipped with scales at which motor vehicles transporting property on public highways are required to stop for checking of gross vehicle and/or axle weights; many states also use portable scales to compliance with their weight limits; also often combined with port of entry facilities.

Weight – In shipping, weight is qualified further as gross (weight of goods and container), net (weight of goods themselves without any container) and legal (similar to net, determined in such manner as law of particular country/jurisdiction may direct).

Wharf – Loading/discharging terminal built parallel to stream/shore line.

Wharfage – 1) Charges made for handling traffic on wharf; 2) charge made for docking vessels at wharf.

Without Recourse – When drafts are negotiated without recourse, beneficiary is relieved of responsibility to holder of draft to extent permissible under contract involved and under law governing transaction.

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(No Terms and Definitions available at this time)

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Yard (Freight) – Unit of track systems within certain area used for storing cars, loading/unloading freight and making up trains, over which movements not authorized by timetable or train order may be made, subject to prescribed signals/regulations.

Yardage – Livestock shipped to stockyards is subject to yardage charges in addition to transportation and other charges, usually assessed on basis of so much per head, varying in amount according to type of livestock.

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Zone of Reasonableness – A zone or limit within which air carriers are permitted to change rates without regulatory scrutiny; if the rate change is within the zone, the new rate is presumed to be reasonable.

Zone-of-Trade Flexibility – Railroads are permitted to raise rates by a percentage increased in the railroad cost index determined by the ICC; rates may be raised by 4 percent.

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